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Flexible Outsourcing and the Impacts of Labour Taxation in European Welfare States

  • Erkki Koskela
  • Panu Poutvaara

    ()

In European Welfare States, low-skilled workers are typically unionized, while the wage formation of high-skilled workers is more competitive. To focus on this aspect, we analyze how flexible international outsourcing and labour taxation affect wage formation, employment and welfare in dual domestic labour markets. Higher productivity of outsourcing, lower cost of outsourcing and lower factor price of outsourcing increase wage dispersion between the high-skilled and low-skilled workers. Increasing wage tax progression of lowskilled workers decreases the wage rate and increases the labour demand of low-skilled workers. It decreases the welfare of low-skilled workers and increases both the welfare of high-skilled workers and the profit of firms.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2008/wp-cesifo-2008-10/cesifo1_wp2440.pdf
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Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2440.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2440
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  1. Erkki Koskela & Panu Poutvaara, 2008. "Outsourcing and Labor Taxation in Dual Labor Markets," CESifo Working Paper Series 2333, CESifo Group Munich.
  2. Jakob Roland Munch & Jan Rose Skaksen, 2005. "Specialization, Outsourcing and Wages," Discussion Papers 05-28, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  3. Hijzen, Alexander & Görg, Holger & Hine, Robert C., 2004. "International Outsourcing and the Skill Structure of Labour Demand in the United Kingdom," IZA Discussion Papers 1249, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Erkki Koskela & Rune Stenbacka, 2007. "Equilibrium Unemployment with Outsourcing under Labour Market Imperfections," CESifo Working Paper Series 1892, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Koskela, Erkki & Schöb, Ronnie, 2008. "Outsourcing of Unionized Firms and the Impact of Labor Market Policy Reforms," IZA Discussion Papers 3566, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Richard Blundell & Thomas MaCurdy, 1998. "Labour supply: a review of alternative approaches," IFS Working Papers W98/18, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  7. Bingley, Paul & Lanot, Gauthier, 2002. "The incidence of income tax on wages and labour supply," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 173-194, February.
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  11. Robert Feenstra & Gordon Hanson, 2001. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," NBER Working Papers 8372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2005. "Fear of service outsourcing: is it justified?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 20(42), pages 308-347, 04.
  13. Freeman, Richard B & Schettkat, Ronald, 2001. " Marketization of Production and the US-Europe Employment Gap," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(0), pages 647-70, Special I.
  14. Christopher A. Pissarides, 1997. "The Impact of Employment Tax Cuts on Unemployment and Wages: The Role of Unemployment Benefits and Tax Structure," CEP Discussion Papers dp0361, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  15. Koskela, Erkki & Schob, Ronnie, 2002. " Optimal Factor Income Taxation in the Presence of Unemployment," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 4(3), pages 387-404.
  16. Erkki Koskela & Rune Stenbacka, 2007. "Equilibrium Unemployment with Outsourcing and Wage Solidarity under Labour Market Imperfections," CESifo Working Paper Series 1988, CESifo Group Munich.
  17. Herwig Immervoll & Henrik Jacobsen Kleven & Claus Thustrup Kreiner & Emmanuel Saez, 2005. "Welfare Reform in European Countries: A Microsimulation Analysis," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 28, OECD Publishing.
  18. Mine Zeynep Senses, 2006. "The Effects of Outsourcing on the Elasticity of Labor Demand," Working Papers 06-07, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  19. Rana Hasan & Devashish Mitra & K.V. Ramaswamy, 2007. "Trade Reforms, Labor Regulations, and Labor-Demand Elasticities: Empirical Evidence from India," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(3), pages 466-481, August.
  20. Alexander Hijzen, 2007. "International Outsourcing, Technological Change, and Wage Inequality," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 188-205, 02.
  21. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1999. "The Impact of Outsourcing and High-Technology Capital on Wages: Estimates For the United States, 1979–1990," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(3), pages 907-940.
  22. Slaughter, Matthew J., 2001. "International trade and labor-demand elasticities," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 27-56, June.
  23. Hans-Werner Sinn, 2007. "The Welfare State and the Forces of Globalization," CESifo Working Paper Series 1925, CESifo Group Munich.
  24. Diehl, Markus, 1999. "The Impact of International Outsourcing on the Skill Structure of Employment: Empirical Evidence from German Manufacturing Industries," Kiel Working Papers 946, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  25. Sebastian Braun & Juliane Scheffel, 2007. "Does International Outsourcing Depress Union Wages?," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2007-033, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  26. Hartmut Egger & Peter Egger, 2006. "International Outsourcing and the Productivity of Low-Skilled Labor in the EU," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 44(1), pages 98-108, January.
  27. Gorg, Holger & Hanley, Aoife, 2005. "Labour demand effects of international outsourcing: Evidence from plant-level data," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 365-376.
  28. Koskela, Erkki & Vilmunen, Jouko, 1996. "Tax progression is good for employment in popular models of trade union behaviour," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 65-80, August.
  29. Davidson, Carl & Matusz, Steven J. & Shevchenko, Andrei, 2008. "Globalization and firm level adjustment with imperfect labor markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 295-309, July.
  30. Stefanova Boyka M, 2006. "The Political Economy of Outsourcing in the European Union and the East-European Enlargement," Business and Politics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(2), pages 1-45, August.
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