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Flexible Outsourcing and the Impacts of Labour Taxation in European Welfare States

  • Koskela, Erkki

    ()

    (University of Helsinki)

  • Poutvaara, Panu

    ()

    (University of Munich)

In European Welfare States, unskilled workers are typically unionized, while the wage formation of skilled workers is more competitive. To focus on this aspect, we analyze how flexible international outsourcing and labour taxation affect wage formation, employment and welfare in dual domestic labour markets. Higher productivity of outsourcing, lower cost of outsourcing and lower factor price of outsourcing increase wage dispersion between the skilled and unskilled workers. Increasing wage tax progression of unskilled workers decreases the wage rate and increases the labour demand of unskilled workers. It decreases the welfare of unskilled workers and increases both the welfare of skilled workers and the profit of firms.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 3699.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3699
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  1. Koskela, Erkki & Poutvaara, Panu, 2008. "Outsourcing and Labor Taxation in Dual Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 3522, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Koskela, Erkki & Schob, Ronnie, 2002. " Optimal Factor Income Taxation in the Presence of Unemployment," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 4(3), pages 387-404.
  3. Koskela, Erkki & Vilmunen, Jouko, 1996. "Tax progression is good for employment in popular models of trade union behaviour," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 65-80, August.
  4. Immervoll, Herwig & Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen & Kreiner, Claus Thustrup & Saez, Emmanuel, 2005. "Welfare Reform in European Countries: A Microsimulation Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 1810, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Hijzen, Alexander & Görg, Holger & Hine, Robert C., 2004. "International Outsourcing and the Skill Structure of Labour Demand in the United Kingdom," IZA Discussion Papers 1249, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Rana Hasan & Devashish Mitra & K.V. Ramaswamy, 2003. "Trade Reforms, Labor Regulations and Labor-Demand Elasticities: Empirical Evidence from India," NBER Working Papers 9879, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Stefanova Boyka M, 2006. "The Political Economy of Outsourcing in the European Union and the East-European Enlargement," Business and Politics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(2), pages 1-45, August.
  8. Markus Diehl, 1999. "The Impact of International Outsourcing on the Skill Structure of Employment: Empirical Evidence from German Manufacturing Industries," Kiel Working Papers 946, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  9. Francesco Daveri & Guido Tabellini, 2000. "Unemployment, growth and taxation in industrial countries," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 47-104, 04.
  10. Koskela, Erkki & Schöb, Ronnie, 2008. "Outsourcing of Unionized Firms and the Impact of Labor Market Policy Reforms," IZA Discussion Papers 3566, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Hans-Werner Sinn, 2007. "The Welfare State and the Forces of Globalization," NBER Working Papers 12946, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Davidson, Carl & Matusz, Steven J. & Nelson, Douglas R., 2007. "Can compensation save free trade?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 167-186, March.
  13. Richard Freeman & Ronald Schettkat, 2002. "Marketization of Production and the US-Europe Employment Gap," CEP Discussion Papers dp0559, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  14. Robert Feenstra & Gordon Hanson, 2001. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," NBER Working Papers 8372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2004. "Fear of Service Outsourcing: Is It Justified?," NBER Working Papers 10808, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1999. "The Impact of Outsourcing and High-Technology Capital on Wages: Estimates For the United States, 1979–1990," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(3), pages 907-940.
  17. Hartmut Egger & Peter Egger, 2006. "International Outsourcing and the Productivity of Low-Skilled Labor in the EU," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 44(1), pages 98-108, January.
  18. Erkki Koskela & Rune Stenbacka, 2007. "Equilibrium Unemployment with Outsourcing and Wage Solidarity under Labour Market Imperfections," CESifo Working Paper Series 1988, CESifo Group Munich.
  19. Bingley, Paul & Lanot, Gauthier, 2002. "The incidence of income tax on wages and labour supply," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 173-194, February.
  20. Davidson, Carl & Matusz, Steven J. & Shevchenko, Andrei, 2008. "Globalization and firm level adjustment with imperfect labor markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 295-309, July.
  21. Jakob Munch & Jan Skaksen, 2009. "Specialization, outsourcing and wages," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 145(1), pages 57-73, April.
  22. Gorg, Holger & Hanley, Aoife, 2005. "Labour demand effects of international outsourcing: Evidence from plant-level data," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 365-376.
  23. Sebastian Braun & Juliane Scheffel, 2007. "Does International Outsourcing Depress Union Wages?," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2007-033, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  24. Alexander Hijzen, 2007. "International Outsourcing, Technological Change, and Wage Inequality," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 188-205, 02.
  25. Rebecca Riley & Garry Young, 2007. "Skill heterogeneity and equilibrium unemployment," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(4), pages 702-725, October.
  26. Richard Blundell & Thomas MaCurdy, 1998. "Labour supply: a review of alternative approaches," IFS Working Papers W98/18, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  27. Pissarides, Christopher A., 1998. "The impact of employment tax cuts on unemployment and wages; The role of unemployment benefits and tax structure," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 155-183, January.
  28. Slaughter, Matthew J., 2001. "International trade and labor-demand elasticities," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 27-56, June.
  29. Mine Zeynep Senses, 2006. "The Effects of Outsourcing on the Elasticity of Labor Demand," Working Papers 06-07, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  30. Erkki Koskela & Rune Stenbacka, 2007. "Equilibrium Unemployment with Outsourcing under Labour Market Imperfections," CESifo Working Paper Series 1892, CESifo Group Munich.
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