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Assessing the Importance of Male and Female Part-Time Work for the Gender Earnings Gap in Britain

  • Mumford, Karen A.

    ()

    (University of York)

  • Smith, Peter N.

    ()

    (University of York)

This study examines the role of individual characteristics, occupation, industry, region, and workplace characteristics in accounting for differences in hourly earnings between men and women in full and part-time jobs in Britain. A four-way gender-working time split (male full-timers, male part-timers, female full-timers and female part-timers) is considered, and allowance is explicitly made for the possibility of both workplace and occupational segregation across each group. Individual and workplace characteristics are shown to explain much of the earnings gaps examined. Within gender groups, the striking difference between full and part-time employees is that full-timers work in higher paying occupations than do part-timers. Also, occupational segregation makes a significant contribution to the earnings gap between male and female part-time employees but not for full-time workers. A further new result is that female workplace segregation contributes significantly to the full/part time earnings gap of both males and females. Part-time employees work in more feminised workplaces and their earnings are lower. By contrast, occupational segregation has little impact on the full-time/part-time earnings gap of either males or females. There remains, moreover, a substantial residual gender effect between male and female employees.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2981.

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Length: 49 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2981
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  1. Alan Manning & Barbara Petrongolo, 2005. "The part-time pay penalty," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 4614, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  2. David Neumark & Harry Holzer, 2000. "Assessing Affirmative Action," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(3), pages 483-568, September.
  3. Marie Drolet, 2002. "Can the workplace explain Canadian gender pay differentials?," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 75-77.
  4. Doris Weichselbaumer & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2005. "A Meta-Analysis of the International Gender Wage Gap," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 479-511, 07.
  5. Mumford, Karen A. & Smith, Peter N., 2004. "The Gender Earnings Gap in Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 1109, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Susan Harkness, 1996. "The gender earnings gap: evidence from the UK," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 17(2), pages 1-36, May.
  7. Erica L. Groshen, 1987. "The structure of the female/male wage differential: is it who you are, what you do, or where you work?," Working Paper 8708, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  8. Karen Mumford & Peter N. Smith, . "Job Tenure in Australia and Britain: Individual Versus Workplace effects," Discussion Papers 00/16, Department of Economics, University of York.
  9. Joanna K. Swaffield, 2007. "Estimates Of The Impact Of Labour Market Attachment And Attitudes On The Female Wage," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 75(3), pages 349-371, 06.
  10. Kimberly Bayard & Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth Troske, 2003. "New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(4), pages 887-922, October.
  11. Abowd, John M. & Kramarz, Francis & Margolis, David N. & Troske, Kenneth R., 2001. "The Relative Importance of Employer and Employee Effects on Compensation: A Comparison of France and the United States," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 419-436, December.
  12. Stewart, Mark B, 1983. "On Least Squares Estimation When the Dependent Variable Is Grouped," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(4), pages 737-53, October.
  13. Hirsch, Barry, 2004. "Why Do Part-Time Workers Earn Less? The Role of Worker and Job Skills," IZA Discussion Papers 1261, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Randall K. Filer, 1986. "The role of personality and tastes in determining occupational structure," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 39(3), pages 412-424, April.
  15. Altonji, Joseph G. & Blank, Rebecca M., 1999. "Race and gender in the labor market," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 48, pages 3143-3259 Elsevier.
  16. Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
  17. O'Dorchai, Síle & Plasman, Robert & Rycx, Francois, 2007. "The Part-Time Wage Penalty in European Countries: How Large Is It for Men?," IZA Discussion Papers 2591, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Hashimoto, Masanori, 1981. "Firm-Specific Human Capital as a Shared Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 475-82, June.
  19. Manning, Alan & Petrongolo, Barbara, 2006. "The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 2419, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. John Budd & Karen Mumford, . "Family-Friendly Work Practices in Britain: Availability and Awareness," Discussion Papers 02/01, Department of Economics, University of York.
  21. Alan Manning & Helen Robinson, 1998. "Something in the way She Movcs: A Fresh Look at an Old Gap," CEP Discussion Papers dp0389, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  22. Marie Drolet, 2002. "Can the Workplace Explain Canadian Gender Pay Differentials?," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 28(s1), pages 41-63, May.
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