The Part-Time Wage Penalty in European Countries: How Large Is It for Men?
Economic theory advances a number of reasons for the existence of a wage gap between part-time and full-time workers. Empirical work has concentrated on the wage effects of part-time work for women. For men, much less empirical evidence exists, mainly because of lacking data. In this paper, we take advantage of access to unique harmonised matched employer-employee data (i.e. the 1995 European Structure of Earnings Survey) to investigate the magnitude and sources of the part-time wage penalty for male workers in six European countries (i.e. Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and the UK). Findings show that the raw gap in hourly gross pay amounts to 16 per cent of male part-timer’s wage in Spain, to 24 per cent in Belgium, to 28 per cent in Denmark and Italy, to 67 per cent in the UK and to 149 per cent in Ireland. Human capital differences explain between 31 per cent of the observed wage gap in the UK and 71 per cent in Denmark. When a larger set of control variables is taken into account (including occupation, industry, firm size, and level of wage bargaining), a much smaller part of the gap remains unexplained by differences in observed characteristics (except in Italy). Overall, results suggest that policy initiatives to promote lifelong learning and training are of great importance to help part-timers catch up. Moreover, except for Italy, they point to a persisting problem of occupational and sectoral segregation between men working part-time and full-time which requires renewed policy attention.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: International Journal of Manpower, 2007, 28 (7), 571-603|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Erling Rasmussen & Jens Lind & Jelle Visser, 2004. "Divergence in Part-Time Work in New Zealand, the Netherlands and Denmark," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 637-658, December.
- Alan Manning & Barbara Petrongolo, 2005.
"The Part-Time Pay Penalty,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0679, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Alan Manning & Barbara Petrongolo, 2005. "The part-time pay penalty," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 4614, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Alan Manning & Barbara Petrongolo, 2005. "The part-time pay penalty," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3661, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Francis Vella, 1998. "Estimating Models with Sample Selection Bias: A Survey," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 127-169.
- Booth, Alison L. & Wood, Margi, 2006.
"Back-to-front Down-under? Part-time/Full-time Wage Differentials in Australia,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2268, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Alison Booth & Margi Wood, 2004. "Back-to-front Down-under? Part-time/Full-time Wage Differentials in Australia," CEPR Discussion Papers 482, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Bardasi, Elena & Gornick, Janet C., 2000. "Women and part-time employment: workers' 'choices' and wage penalties in five industrialized countries," ISER Working Paper Series 2000-11, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Heckman, James J, 1979.
"Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error,"
Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
- Ronald Oaxaca, 1971.
"Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets,"
396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Francis Vella & Marno Verbeek, 1998. "Whose wages do unions raise? A dynamic model of unionism and wage rate determination for young men," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(2), pages 163-183.
- Hirsch, Barry, 2004.
"Why Do Part-Time Workers Earn Less? The Role of Worker and Job Skills,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1261, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Barry T. Hirsch, 2005. "Why Do Part-Time Workers Earn Less? The Role of Worker and Job Skills," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(4), pages 525-551, July.
- Barry T. Hirsch, 2005. "Why do part-time workers earn less? The role of worker and job skills," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(4), pages 525-551, July.
- Skatun, John Douglas, 1998. "Divide the hours and conquer the surplus: part-time workers and pay," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 235-242, November.
- Martijn P. Tummers & Isolde Woittiez, 1991. "A Simultaneous Wage and Labor Supply Model with Hours Restrictions," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(3), pages 393-423.
- Erkki Koskela & Ronnie Schöb, 1999.
"Does the Composition of Wage and Payroll Taxes Matter Under Nash Bargaining?,"
203, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
- Koskela, Erkki & Schob, Ronnie, 1999. "Does the composition of wage and payroll taxes matter under Nash bargaining?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 343-349, September.
- Koskela, E. & Schob, R., 1998. "Does the Composition of Wage and Payroll Taxes Matter Under Nash Bargaining," University of Helsinki, Department of Economics 443, Department of Economics.
- Manski, C.F., 1992. "Identification Problems in the Social Sciences," Working papers 9217, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Barzel, Yoram, 1973. "The Determination of Daily Hours and Wages," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 87(2), pages 220-38, May.
- Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
- Russo, Giovanni & Hassink, Wolter, 2005. "The Part-Time Wage Penalty: A Career Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 1468, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Maria Jepsen & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2005.
"The wage penalty induced by part-time work: the case of Belgium,"
DULBEA Working Papers
05-17, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Maria Jepsen & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2005. "The wage penalty induced by part-time work: the case of Belgium," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 48(1-2), pages 73-94.
- Gomez, Sandalio & Pons, Celia & Marti, Carlos, 2002. "Part-Time work: Its evolution and results," IESE Research Papers D/476, IESE Business School.
- Joan R. Rodgers, 2004. "Hourly Wages of full-time and part-time employees in Australia," Australian Journal of Labour Economics (AJLE), Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School, vol. 7(2), pages 231-254, June.
- John F. Ermisch & Robert E. Wright, 1993. "Wage Offers and Full-Time and Part-Time Employment by British Women," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(1), pages 111-133.
- E. Paul Durrenberger, 2005. "Labour," Chapters, in: A Handbook of Economic Anthropology, chapter 8 Edward Elgar.
- Inés Hardoy & P�l Schøne, 2006. "The Part-Time Wage Gap in Norway: How Large is It "Really"?," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 44(2), pages 263-282, 06.
- Main, Brian G M & Reilly, Barry, 1992. "Women and the Union Wage Gap," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(410), pages 49-66, January.
- Lindbeck, Assar & Snower, Dennis J, 2000.
"Multitask Learning and the Reorganization of Work: From Tayloristic to Holistic Organization,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(3), pages 353-76, July.
- Lindbeck, Assar & Snower, Dennis J., 1999. "Multi-Task Learning and the Reorganization of Work. From Tayloristic to Holistic Organization," IZA Discussion Papers 39, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Koskela, Erkki & Vilmunen, Jouko, 1996. "Tax progression is good for employment in popular models of trade union behaviour," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 65-80, August.
- Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
- Nicola-Maria Riley, 1997. "Determinants of Union Membership: A Review," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 11(2), pages 265-301, 06.
- Stewart, Mark B, 1983. "Relative Earnings and Individual Union Membership in the United Kingdom," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 50(198), pages 111-25, May.
- Hu, Yongjian & Tijdens, Kea, 2003. "Choices for part-time jobs and the impacts on the wage differentials. A comparative study for Great Britain and the Netherlands," IRISS Working Paper Series 2003-05, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
- Moffitt, Robert, 1984. "The Estimation of a Joint Wage-Hours Labor Supply Model," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 550-66, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2591. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.