IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/vfsc13/79969.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The German part-time wage gap: bad news for men

Author

Listed:
  • Wolf, Elke

Abstract

Despite the increasing occurrence of part-time employment in Germany, the effects on wage rates are rarely studied. I therefore use GSOEP panel data from 1984 to 2010 and apply different econometric approaches and definitions of part-time work to measure the so-called part-time wage gap of both, men and women. A very robust finding is that part-time working men are subject to higher wage cuts than women. The specification accommodating all available information and the biasing effect of unobserved individual characteristics yields a wage cut of about 10 percent in West and East Germany. Furthermore, the type of contract makes a big difference. While marginal employees own lower wage rates, irrespective of region and sex, female part-time employees covered by social security have no significant drawback once differences in firm and job characteristics (in OLS regressions) or individual fixed-effects (in panel regressions) are taken into account. The results also reveal that work experience in part-time employment generates no positive returns, implying that reduced working hours do not only cause short-term effects. Another novel of my study is the look at the part-time wage gap over time. While there are good reasons to believe that the part-time wage gap shrinks, the empirical evidence reveals that wage differentials in West-Germany increased over time. This finding also surprises in light of the supposition that the wage penalty tends to be lower in times when part-time work is widespread and employers get accustomed to alternative working time schemes.

Suggested Citation

  • Wolf, Elke, 2013. "The German part-time wage gap: bad news for men," VfS Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79969, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79969
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/79969/1/VfS_2013_pid_962.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Daniel Aaronson & Eric French, 2004. "The Effect of Part-Time Work on Wages: Evidence from the Social Security Rules," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 329-352, April.
    2. Montgomery, Mark, 1988. "On the Determinants of Employer Demand for Part-Time Workers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(1), pages 112-117, February.
    3. John Baffoe-Bonnie, 2004. "Interindustry part-time and full-time wage differentials: regional and national analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 107-118.
    4. Eleonora Matteazzi & Ariane Pailhé & Anne Solaz, 2012. "Part-time wage penalties in Europe: A matter of selection or segregation?," Working Papers 250, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    5. Wahlberg, Roger, 2008. "The Part-Time Penalty for Natives and Immigrants," Working Papers in Economics 314, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    6. Fernández-Kranz, Daniel & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2011. "The part-time pay penalty in a segmented labor market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 591-606, October.
    7. Alan Manning & Barbara Petrongolo, 2008. "The Part‐Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(526), pages 28-51, February.
    8. Piet Allaart & Lutz Bellmann, 2007. "Reasons for part-time work: an empirical analysis for Germany and The Netherlands," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 28(1), pages 557 - 570, October.
    9. Elke Holst & Jürgen Schupp, 1994. "Ist Teilzeitarbeit der richtige Weg?: Arbeitszeitpräferenzen in West- und Ostdeutschland," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 61(35), pages 618-620.
    10. Browning, Martin, 1992. "Children and Household Economic Behavior," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1434-1475, September.
    11. Barry T. Hirsch, 2005. "Why Do Part-Time Workers Earn Less? The Role of Worker and Job Skills," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(4), pages 525-551, July.
    12. Siv Gustafsson & Eiko Kenjoh & Cecile Wetzels, 2001. "Employment Choices and Pay Differences between Non-Standard and Standard Work in Britain, Germany, Netherlands and Sweden," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-086/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    13. Lindbeck, Assar & Snower, Dennis J, 2000. "Multitask Learning and the Reorganization of Work: From Tayloristic to Holistic Organization," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(3), pages 353-376, July.
    14. Inés Hardoy & Pål Schøne, 2006. "The Part‐Time Wage Gap in Norway: How Large is It Really?," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 44(2), pages 263-282, June.
    15. Sara Connolly & Mary Gregory, 2009. "The part-time pay penalty: earnings trajectories of British Women," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(suppl_1), pages 76-97, April.
    16. Martijn P. Tummers & Isolde Woittiez, 1991. "A Simultaneous Wage and Labor Supply Model with Hours Restrictions," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(3), pages 393-423.
    17. Bell, Linda A. & Freeman, Richard B., 2001. "The incentive for working hard: explaining hours worked differences in the US and Germany," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 181-202, May.
    18. Elke Holst, 2007. "Arbeitszeitwünsche von Frauen und Männern liegen näher beieinander als tatsächliche Arbeitszeiten," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 74(14/15), pages 209-215.
    19. Giovanni Russo & Wolter Hassink, 2008. "The Part-Time Wage Gap: a Career Perspective," De Economist, Springer, vol. 156(2), pages 145-174, June.
    20. Euwals, Rob & Hogerbrugge, Maurice, 2006. "Explaining the Growth of Part-Time Employment: Factors of Supply and Demand," CEPR Discussion Papers 5595, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    21. Elke Holst, 2009. "Vollzeitbeschäftigte wollen kürzere, Teilzeitbeschäftigte längere Arbeitszeiten," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 76(25), pages 409-415.
    22. Moffitt, Robert, 1984. "The Estimation of a Joint Wage-Hours Labor Supply Model," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 550-566, October.
    23. Joan R. Rodgers, 2004. "Hourly Wages of full-time and part-time employees in Australia," Australian Journal of Labour Economics (AJLE), Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School, vol. 7(2), pages 231-254, June.
    24. Piet Allaart & Lutz Bellmann, 2007. "Reasons for part-time work: an empirical analysis for Germany and The Netherlands," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 28(7), pages 557-570, October.
    25. Miriam Beblo & Elke Wolf, 2002. "How much does a year off cost? Estimating the wage effects of employment breaks and part-time periods," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 45(2), pages 191-217.
    26. George J. Borjas, 1980. "The Relationship between Wages and Weekly Hours of Work: The Role of Division Bias," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 15(3), pages 409-423.
    27. Holst, Elke & Seifert, Hartmut, 2012. "Arbeitszeitpolitische Kontroversen im Spiegel der Arbeitszeitwünsche," WSI-Mitteilungen, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG, vol. 65(2), pages 141-149.
    28. Yoram Barzel, 1973. "The Determination of Daily Hours and Wages," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(2), pages 220-238.
    29. Wahlberg, Roger, 2008. "Part-Time Penalty in Sweden: Evidence from Quantile Regression," Working Papers in Economics 315, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    30. Bianca Buligescu & Denis de Crombrugghe & Gülçin Menteşoğlu & Raymond Montizaan, 2009. "Panel estimates of the wage penalty for maternal leave," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(suppl_1), pages 35-55, April.
    31. Rob Euwals & Maurice Hogerbrugge, 2006. "Explaining the Growth of Part‐time Employment: Factors of Supply and Demand," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 20(3), pages 533-557, September.
    32. Landers, Renee M & Rebitzer, James B & Taylor, Lowell J, 1996. "Rat Race Redux: Adverse Selection in the Determination of Work Hours in Law Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 329-348, June.
    33. Walter Y. Oi, 1962. "Labor as a Quasi-Fixed Factor," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 538-538.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Uschi Backes-Gellner & Yvonne Oswald & Simone Tuor Sartore, 2014. "Part-Time Employment—Boon to Women but Bane to Men? New Insights on Employer-Provided Training," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(4), pages 463-481, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Elke Wolf, 2014. "The German Part-Time Wage Gap: Bad News for Men," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 663, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    2. Colella, Fabrizio, 2014. "Women's Part-Time - Full-Time Wage Differentials in Europe: an Endogenous Switching Model," MPRA Paper 55287, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Ramos, Raul & Sanromá, Esteban & Simón, Hipólito, 2015. "An Analysis of Wage Differentials between Full- and Part-Time Workers in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 9257, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. Devicienti, Francesco & Grinza, Elena & Vannoni, Davide, 2020. "Why do firms (dis)like part-time contracts?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    5. Kerly Krillo & Jaan Masso, 2010. "The Part-Time/Full-Time Wage Gap in Central and Eastern Europe: the Case of Estonia," Research in Economics and Business: Central and Eastern Europe, Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology, vol. 2(1).
    6. Annemarie Künn-Nelen & Andries de Grip & Didier Fouarge, 2013. "Is Part-Time Employment Beneficial for Firm Productivity?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 66(5), pages 1172-1191, October.
    7. Síle O'Dorchai & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2007. "The part-time wage penalty in European countries: how large is it for men?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 28(7), pages 571-603, October.
    8. Raul Ramos & Esteban Sanromá & Hipólito Simón, 2016. "The part-time wage penalty: Does bargaining coverage outweigh regional differences in Spain?," The Economic and Labour Relations Review, , vol. 27(3), pages 368-386, September.
    9. Fernández-Kranz, Daniel & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2011. "The part-time pay penalty in a segmented labor market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 591-606, October.
    10. Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai, 2008. "Do women gain or lose from becoming mothers?," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 51(2/3), pages 243-268.
    11. Eleonora Matteazzi & Ariane Pailhé & Anne Solaz, 2012. "Part-time wage penalties in Europe: A matter of selection or segregation?," Working Papers 250, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    12. Wolf, Elke, 2002. "Lower wage rates for fewer hours? A simultaneous wage-hours model for Germany," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 643-663, November.
    13. Robert G. Valletta & Leila Bengali & Catherine van der List, 2020. "Cyclical and Market Determinants of Involuntary Part-Time Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(1), pages 67-93.
    14. Wolf, Elke, 2001. "Comparing the part-time wage gap in Germany and the Netherlands," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-18, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    15. Wolf, Elke, 2010. "Lohndifferenziale zwischen Vollzeit- und Teilzeitbeschäftigten in Ost- und Westdeutschland," WSI Working Papers 174, The Institute of Economic and Social Research (WSI), Hans Böckler Foundation.
    16. Alexander Bick & Adam Blandin & Richard Rogerson, 2022. "Hours and Wages," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 137(3), pages 1901-1962.
    17. Eleonora Matteazzi & Ariane Pailhé & Anne Solaz, 2013. "Does Part-Time Employment Widen the Gender Wage Gap? Evidence from Twelve European Countries," Working Papers 293, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    18. Andrea Garnero & Stephan Kampelmann & François Rycx, 2014. "Part-Time Work, Wages, and Productivity," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 67(3), pages 926-954, July.
    19. Patricia Gallego Granados, 2019. "The Part-Time Wage Gap across the Wage Distribution," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1791, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    20. John K. Dagsvik & Zhiyang Jia, 2016. "Labor Supply as a Choice Among Latent Jobs: Unobserved Heterogeneity and Identification," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(3), pages 487-506, April.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79969. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfsocea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfsocea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.