The German part-time wage gap: bad news for men
Despite the increasing occurrence of part-time employment in Germany, the effects on wage rates are rarely studied. I therefore use GSOEP panel data from 1984 to 2010 and apply different econometric approaches and definitions of part-time work to measure the so-called part-time wage gap of both, men and women. A very robust finding is that part-time working men are subject to higher wage cuts than women. The specification accommodating all available information and the biasing effect of unobserved individual characteristics yields a wage cut of about 10 percent in West and East Germany. Furthermore, the type of contract makes a big difference. While marginal employees own lower wage rates, irrespective of region and sex, female part-time employees covered by social security have no significant drawback once differences in firm and job characteristics (in OLS regressions) or individual fixed-effects (in panel regressions) are taken into account. The results also reveal that work experience in part-time employment generates no positive returns, implying that reduced working hours do not only cause short-term effects. Another novel of my study is the look at the part-time wage gap over time. While there are good reasons to believe that the part-time wage gap shrinks, the empirical evidence reveals that wage differentials in West-Germany increased over time. This finding also surprises in light of the supposition that the wage penalty tends to be lower in times when part-time work is widespread and employers get accustomed to alternative working time schemes.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.socialpolitik.org/|
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lindbeck, Assar & Snower, Dennis J, 2000.
"Multitask Learning and the Reorganization of Work: From Tayloristic to Holistic Organization,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(3), pages 353-376, July.
- Lindbeck, Assar & Snower, Dennis J., 1999. "Multi-Task Learning and the Reorganization of Work. From Tayloristic to Holistic Organization," IZA Discussion Papers 39, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Daniel Aaronson & Eric French, 2004. "The Effect of Part-Time Work on Wages: Evidence from the Social Security Rules," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 329-352, April.
- Daniel Aaronson & Eric French, 2001. "The effect of part-time work on wages: evidence from the Social Security rules," Working Paper Series WP-01-20, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Sara Connolly & Mary Gregory, 2009. "The part-time pay penalty: earnings trajectories of British Women," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(suppl_1), pages 76-97, April.
- Alan Manning & Barbara Petrongolo, 2008. "The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(526), pages 28-51, 02.
- Manning, Alan & Petrongolo, Barbara, 2006. "The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 2419, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Manning, Alan & Petrongolo, Barbara, 2007. "The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain," CEPR Discussion Papers 6058, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Montgomery, Mark, 1988. "On the Determinants of Employer Demand for Part-Time Workers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(1), pages 112-117, February.
- Martijn P. Tummers & Isolde Woittiez, 1991. "A Simultaneous Wage and Labor Supply Model with Hours Restrictions," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(3), pages 393-423.
- John Baffoe-Bonnie, 2004. "Interindustry part-time and full-time wage differentials: regional and national analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 107-118.
- Eleonora Matteazzi & Ariane Pailhé & Anne Solaz, 2012. "Part-time wage penalties in Europe: A matter of selection or segregation?," Working Papers 250, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Elke Holst, 2007. "Arbeitszeitwünsche von Frauen und Männern liegen näher beieinander als tatsächliche Arbeitszeiten," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 74(14/15), pages 209-215.
- Wahlberg, Roger, 2008. "The Part-Time Penalty for Natives and Immigrants," Working Papers in Economics 314, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
- Fernández-Kranz, Daniel & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2011. "The part-time pay penalty in a segmented labor market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 591-606, October.
- Fernández-Kranz, Daniel & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2009. "The Part-Time Pay Penalty in a Segmented Labor Market," IZA Discussion Papers 4342, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Daniel Fernández-Kranz & Núria Rodríguez-Planas, 2010. "The Part-Time Pay Penalty in a Segmented Labor Market," Working Papers 458, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Daniel Fernández-Kranz & Núria Rodríguez-Planas, 2010. "The Part-Time Pay Penalty in a Segmented Labor Market," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 825.10, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Giovanni Russo & Wolter Hassink, 2008. "The Part-Time Wage Gap: a Career Perspective," De Economist, Springer, vol. 156(2), pages 145-174, June.
- Euwals, Rob & Hogerbrugge, Maurice, 2006. "Explaining the Growth of Part-Time Employment: Factors of Supply and Demand," CEPR Discussion Papers 5595, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Elke Holst & Jürgen Schupp, 1994. "Ist Teilzeitarbeit der richtige Weg?: Arbeitszeitpräferenzen in West- und Ostdeutschland," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 61(35), pages 618-620.
- Elke Holst, 2009. "Vollzeitbeschäftigte wollen kürzere, Teilzeitbeschäftigte längere Arbeitszeiten," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 76(25), pages 409-415.
- Moffitt, Robert, 1984. "The Estimation of a Joint Wage-Hours Labor Supply Model," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 550-566, October.
- Joan R. Rodgers, 2004. "Hourly Wages of full-time and part-time employees in Australia," Australian Journal of Labour Economics (AJLE), Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School, vol. 7(2), pages 231-254, June.
- Piet Allaart, 2007. "Reasons for part-time work: an empirical analysis for Germany and The Netherlands," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 28(7), pages 557-570, October.
- Browning, Martin, 1992. "Children and Household Economic Behavior," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1434-1475, September.
- Miriam Beblo & Elke Wolf, 2002. "How much does a year off cost? Estimating the wage effects of employment breaks and part-time periods," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 45(2), pages 191-217.
- George J. Borjas, 1980. "The Relationship between Wages and Weekly Hours of Work: The Role of Division Bias," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 15(3), pages 409-423.
- Barry T. Hirsch, 2005. "Why Do Part-Time Workers Earn Less? The Role of Worker and Job Skills," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(4), pages 525-551, July.
- Hirsch, Barry, 2004. "Why Do Part-Time Workers Earn Less? The Role of Worker and Job Skills," IZA Discussion Papers 1261, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Yoram Barzel, 1973. "The Determination of Daily Hours and Wages," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(2), pages 220-238.
- Wahlberg, Roger, 2008. "Part-Time Penalty in Sweden: Evidence from Quantile Regression," Working Papers in Economics 315, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
- Inés Hardoy & Pål Schøne, 2006. "The Part-Time Wage Gap in Norway: How Large is It "Really"?," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 44(2), pages 263-282, 06.
- Bianca Buligescu & Denis de Crombrugghe & Gülçin Menteşoğlu & Raymond Montizaan, 2009. "Panel estimates of the wage penalty for maternal leave," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(suppl_1), pages 35-55, April.
- Rob Euwals & Maurice Hogerbrugge, 2006. "Explaining the Growth of Part-time Employment: Factors of Supply and Demand," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 20(3), pages 533-557, 09.
- Landers, Renee M & Rebitzer, James B & Taylor, Lowell J, 1996. "Rat Race Redux: Adverse Selection in the Determination of Work Hours in Law Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 329-348, June.
- Walter Y. Oi, 1962. "Labor as a Quasi-Fixed Factor," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 538-538. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:79969. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.