The gender earnings gap: evidence from the UK
Rising female labour-force participation has been one of the most striking changes to have occurred in industrialised countries’ labour markets over recent decades. In the UK between 1973 and 1993, female labour-force participation rose from 57 per cent to 68 per cent for women aged 16 to 64.2 Women now account for half of all employees and 36 per cent of those working full-time (compared with 38 per cent and 30 per cent respectively in 1971).3 Yet, although women have been the main beneficiaries from the creation of new jobs, they have still not gained earnings parity with men. For women working full-time,however, the pay gap has been closing, and the New Earnings Survey reports a rise in the ratio of median hourly pay of full-time women to men from 65 per cent in 1970 to 73 per cent in 1976 and a more gradual increase thereafter to 80 per cent in 1994. In contrast, the relative earnings position of women working part-time has changed little for over two decades. Our period of study (the mid-1970s to the early 1990s) saw significant shifts in the composition of female employment that are potentially important in explaining changes in the gender gap. First, there has been a notable increase in the average age of full-time working women which has primarily resulted from increased employment amongst women of child-bearing age. This has shifted the
Volume (Year): 17 (1996)
Issue (Month): 2 (May)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (+44) 020 7291 4800
Fax: (+44) 020 7323 4780
Web page: http://www.ifs.org.uk
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Postal: The Institute for Fiscal Studies 7 Ridgmount Street LONDON WC1E 7AE|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John F. Ermisch & Robert E. Wright, 1993. "Wage Offers and Full-Time and Part-Time Employment by British Women," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(1), pages 111-133.
- David Neumark, 1987.
"Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination,"
Special Studies Papers
227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- David Neumark, 1988. "Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
- Machin, Steve, 1994.
"Changes in the Relative Demand for Skills in the UK Labour Market,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
952, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Stephen Machin, 1995. "Changes in the Relative Demand for Skills in the UK Labour Market," CEP Discussion Papers dp0221, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Green, Francis & Machin, Stephen & Manning, Alan, 1996. "The Employer Size-Wage Effect: Can Dynamic Monopsony Provide an Explanation?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 48(3), pages 433-55, July.
- Ronald Oaxaca, 1971.
"Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets,"
396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Borooah, V K & Lee, K C, 1988. "The Effect of Changes in Britain's Industrial Structure on Female Relative Pay and Employment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(392), pages 818-32, September.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence Kahn, 1995.
"The Gender Earnings Gap: Some International Evidence,"
in: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, pages 105-144
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 1992. "The Gender Earnings Gap: Some International Evidence," NBER Working Papers 4224, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ifs:fistud:v:17:y:1996:i:2:p:1-36. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Stephanie Seavers)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.