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Salary and the Gender Salary Gap in the Academic Profession

  • Ward-Warmedinger, Melanie E.

    ()

    (European Central Bank)

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    The academic profession is an occupation in which pay has fallen dramatically, resulting in the setting up of a Committee of Inquiry to examine both pay relativities and mechanisms for pay determination. This paper considers salary determination and the gender salary gap in the academic labour market drawing upon a particularly detailed data set of 900 academics from five traditional Scottish Universities. Results reveal an aggregate gender salary differential for academic staff of 15%. Most of this differential can, however, be explained by our model. Evidence suggests a limited opportunity for female academics to combine career and family, despite the flexibility of an academic job and emphasises the importance of mobility to the male career. Publication record, but not teaching ability, is found to be an important determinant of salary. The dominant contribution of rank to both the determination of female academic salaries and the gender salary gap suggests vastly differential opportunities for promotion faced by men and women.

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    File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp64.pdf
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    Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 64.

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    Length: 30 pages
    Date of creation: Oct 1999
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: published as 'The gender salary gap in British academia' in: Applied Economics, 2001, 33 (3),1669-1681
    Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp64
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    1. Formby, John P & Gunther, William D & Sakano, Ryoichi, 1993. "Entry Level Salaries of Academic Economists: Does Gender or Age Matter?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 31(1), pages 128-38, January.
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    3. Tuckman, Howard P & Gapinski, James H & Hagemann, Robert P, 1977. "Faculty Skills and the Salary Structure in Academe: A Market Perspective," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(4), pages 692-702, September.
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    5. Barbezat, Debra A., 1991. "Updating estimates of male-female salary differentials in the academic labor market," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 191-195, June.
    6. Broder, Ivy E, 1993. "Professional Achievements and Gender Differences among Academic Economists," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 31(1), pages 116-27, January.
    7. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
    8. Brown, Byron W. & Woodbury, Stephen A., 1998. "Seniority, external labor markets, and faculty pay," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 771-798.
    9. Kahn, Shulamit, 1993. "Gender Differences in Academic Career Paths of Economists," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 52-56, May.
    10. Ransom, Michael R, 1993. "Seniority and Monopsony in the Academic Labor Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 221-33, March.
    11. Dolton, Peter J & Makepeace, Gerald H, 1987. "Marital Status, Child Rearing and Earnings Differentials in the Graduate Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388), pages 897-922, December.
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    13. Greenhalgh, Christine A, 1980. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Great Britain: Is Marriage an Equal Opportunity?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(363), pages 751-75, December.
    14. Strober, Myra H & Quester, Aline O, 1977. "The Earnings and Promotion of Women Faculty: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 207-13, March.
    15. Hirsch, Barry T & Leppel, Karen, 1982. "Sex Discrimination in Faculty Salaries: Evidence from a Historically Women's University," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 829-35, September.
    16. Ward-Warmedinger, Melanie E. & Sloane, Peter J., 1999. "Job Satisfaction within the Scottish Academic Profession," IZA Discussion Papers 38, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    17. Hare, Paul & Wyatt, Geoffrey, 1988. "Modelling the determination of research output in British universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 315-328, December.
    18. Ronald Oaxaca, 1971. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," Working Papers 396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    19. Johnson, George E & Stafford, Frank P, 1974. "The Earnings and Promotion of Women Faculty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(6), pages 888-903, December.
    20. Dex, S & Sloane, P J, 1988. " Detecting and Removing Discrimination under Equal Opportunities Policies," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(1), pages 1-27.
    21. John F. Ermisch & Robert E. Wright, 1993. "Wage Offers and Full-Time and Part-Time Employment by British Women," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(1), pages 111-133.
    22. McNabb, Robert & Wass, Victoria, 1997. "Male-Female Salary Differentials in British Universities," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(3), pages 328-43, July.
    23. Debra A. Barbezat, 1987. "Salary Differentials by Sex in the Academic Labor Market," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 22(3), pages 422-428.
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