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Flexible Scheduling and the Gender Wage Gap

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  • Winder Katie L

    () (University of California, Merced)

Abstract

Using British data from the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey, the author examines whether and how the relationship between schedule flexibility and wages differs by gender. Using a basic measure of whether the worker has discretion over the start and end times of work, men have more than twice the wage return to flexibility than do women, even within the same firm and detailed occupation. This difference cannot be explained by differences in household responsibilities or by differences in part time work by gender, but gender differences in job authority and autonomy do matter. Differences in the wage returns to this type of flexibility account for 10% of the gender wage gap, which suggests that understanding the underlying cause for the disparity in the returns to flexibility is important for understanding the policy implications of promoting flexible work arrangements.

Suggested Citation

  • Winder Katie L, 2009. "Flexible Scheduling and the Gender Wage Gap," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-27, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:bejeap:v:9:y:2009:i:1:n:30
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Alan Manning & Barbara Petrongolo, 2008. "The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(526), pages 28-51, February.
    2. Mumford, Karen A. & Smith, Peter N., 2007. "Assessing the Importance of Male and Female Part-Time Work for the Gender Earnings Gap in Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 2981, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Elaine McCrate, 2005. "Flexible Hours, Workplace Authority, And Compensating Wage Differentials In The Us," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(1), pages 11-39.
    4. Matthew Gray & Jacqueline Tudball, 2004. "Family-friendly work practices: differences within and between workplaces," Labor and Demography 0405003, EconWPA.
    5. Johnson, Nancy Brown & Provan, Keith G., 1995. "The relationship between work/family benefits and earnings: A test of competing predictions," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 571-584.
    6. John F. Ermisch & Robert E. Wright, 1993. "Wage Offers and Full-Time and Part-Time Employment by British Women," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(1), pages 111-133.
    7. Nick Bloom & John Van Reenen, 2006. "Management Practices, Work--L ife Balance, and Productivity: A Review of Some Recent Evidence," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(4), pages 457-482, Winter.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tamar Khitarishvili, 2016. "Two tales of contraction: gender wage gap in Georgia before and after the 2008 crisis," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, December.
    2. Cheryl Carleton & Mary Kelly, 2016. "Alternative Work Arrangements and Job Satisfaction," Villanova School of Business Department of Economics and Statistics Working Paper Series 32, Villanova School of Business Department of Economics and Statistics.
    3. Daniel Possenriede & Wolter H.J. Hassink & Janneke Plantenga, 2016. "Does temporal and locational flexibility of work increase the supply of working hours? Evidence from the Netherlands," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-34, December.
    4. Beckmann, Michael & Hegedüs, Istvan, 2011. "Trust-based working time and organizational performance: evidence from German establishment-level panel data," Working papers 2011/13, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    5. Daniel Possenriede & Wolter Hassink & Janneke Plantenga, 2014. "Does temporal and locational flexibility of work increase the labour supply of part-timers?," Working Papers 14-11, Utrecht School of Economics.
    6. Kato, Takao & Kodama, Naomi, 2017. "Women in the Workplace and Management Practices: Theory and Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 10788, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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