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Revisitando a Função de Reação Fiscal no Brasil Pós-Real: Uma Abordagem de Mudanças de Regime

  • Mário Jorge Mendonça
  • Cláudio H. dos Santos
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    Este artigo apresenta várias especificações econométricas - notadamente modelos Markov-Switching - para a "função de reação fiscal" do setor público consolidado brasileiro após o Plano Real. Os resultados obtidos sugerem fortemente que a política fiscal no Brasil apresentou dois regimes distintos após o Plano Real, sendo que o final do ano 2000 marca o período mais provável da transição entre esses dois regimes. O regime "pós-2000" se caracteriza por uma baixa (ou mesmo nula) reação do superávit primário a variações na dívida líquida do setor público (DLSP). Em contraste, no regime anterior a 2000 (de maior volatilidade) a reação do superávit primário a variações na DLSP é bastante evidente. Observou-se, ainda, que em ambos os regimes o superávit primário parece responder positivamente a variações no produto e que em nenhum dos dois regimes o governo parece ter utilizado explicitamente a política fiscal como instrumento de controle da inflação. This article presents various econometric specifications - most notably Markov- Switching models - for the "fiscal reaction function" of the Brazilian consolidated public sector after the 1994 ?Real Plan?. The results reported here strongly suggest that a major structural break has happened in the Brazilian fiscal policy around the year 2000. Indeed, while the "reaction" of primary balance to changes in net debt appears to be weak or even null when one looks at the 2000-2007 period, the contrary happens in the (more volatile) 1995-2000 years. Our results also suggest that the primary surplus is positively correlated with output and uncorrelated with inflation in both regimes.

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    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1337.

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    Length: 36 pages
    Date of creation: May 2008
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1337
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    1. Rocha, Fabiana, 1997. "Long-Run Limits on the Brazilian Government Debt," Revista Brasileira de Economia, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 51(4), October.
    2. Hakkio, Craig S & Rush, Mark, 1991. "Is the Budget Deficit "Too Large?"," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 29(3), pages 429-45, July.
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    7. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
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    9. Lima, Luiz Renato Regis de Oliveira & Sampaio, Raquel Menezes Bezerra & Gaglianone, Wagner Piazza, 2006. "Debt ceiling and fiscal sustainability in Brazil: a quantile autoregression approach," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 631, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
    10. Marcio Garcia & Roberto Rigobon, 2004. "A Risk Management Approach to Emerging Market's Sovereign Debt Sustainability with an Application to Brazilian Data," NBER Working Papers 10336, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Robert B. Davies, 2002. "Hypothesis testing when a nuisance parameter is present only under the alternative: Linear model case," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 89(2), pages 484-489, June.
    12. Jordi GalÌ & Roberto Perotti, 2003. "Fiscal policy and monetary integration in Europe," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 18(37), pages 533-572, October.
    13. Taylor, John B., 1993. "Discretion versus policy rules in practice," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 195-214, December.
    14. Chang-Jin Kim & Charles R. Nelson, 1999. "State-Space Models with Regime Switching: Classical and Gibbs-Sampling Approaches with Applications," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262112388, June.
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