IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Distributional Effects of Emission Pricing in a Carbon-Intensive Economy: The Case of Poland


  • Marek Antosiewicz
  • J. Rodrigo Fuentes
  • Piotr Lewandowski
  • Jan Witajewski-Baltvilks


In this paper, we assess the distributional impact of introducing a carbon tax in Poland. We apply a two-step simulation procedure. First, we evaluate the economy-wide effects with a dynamic general equilibrium model. Second, we use a microsimulation model based on household budget survey data to assess the effects on various income groups and on inequality. We introduce a new adjustment channel related to employment changes, which is qualitatively different from price and behavioural effects, and is quantitatively important. We nd that the overall distributional effect of a carbon tax is largely driven by how the revenue is spent: distributing the revenues from a carbon tax as lump-sum transfers to households reduces income inequality, while spending the revenues on a reduction of labour taxation increases inequality. These results could be relevant for other coal-producing countries, such as South Africa, Germany, or Australia.

Suggested Citation

  • Marek Antosiewicz & J. Rodrigo Fuentes & Piotr Lewandowski & Jan Witajewski-Baltvilks, 2020. "Distributional Effects of Emission Pricing in a Carbon-Intensive Economy: The Case of Poland," Documentos de Trabajo 546, Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile..
  • Handle: RePEc:ioe:doctra:546

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Aubert, Diane & Chiroleu-Assouline, Mireille, 2019. "Environmental tax reform and income distribution with imperfect heterogeneous labour markets," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 60-82.
    2. Fæhn, Taran & Gómez-Plana, Antonio G. & Kverndokk, Snorre, 2009. "Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 595-604, July.
    3. Jiang, Zhujun & Shao, Shuai, 2014. "Distributional effects of a carbon tax on Chinese households: A case of Shanghai," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 269-277.
    4. Goulder, Lawrence H. & Hafstead, Marc A.C. & Kim, GyuRim & Long, Xianling, 2019. "Impacts of a carbon tax across US household income groups: What are the equity-efficiency trade-offs?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 175(C), pages 44-64.
    5. Azusa OKAGAWA & Kanemi BAN, 2008. "Estimation of substitution elasticities for CGE models," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 08-16, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics.
    6. Hafstead, Marc A.C. & Williams, Roberton C., 2018. "Unemployment and environmental regulation in general equilibrium," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 160(C), pages 50-65.
    7. Bukowski, Pawel & Novokmet, Filip, 2021. "Between communism and capitalism: long-term inequality in Poland, 1892–2015," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 110221, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    8. Alton, Theresa & Arndt, Channing & Davies, Rob & Hartley, Faaiqa & Makrelov, Konstantin & Thurlow, James & Ubogu, Dumebi, 2014. "Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 344-354.
    9. Hassler, John & Krusell, Per & Olovsson, Conny, 2012. "Energy-Saving Technical Change," CEPR Discussion Papers 9177, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. E. Mark Curtis, 2018. "Who Loses under Cap-and-Trade Programs? The Labor Market Effects of the NOx Budget Trading Program," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 100(1), pages 151-166, March.
    11. Callan, Tim & Lyons, Sean & Scott, Susan & Tol, Richard S.J. & Verde, Stefano, 2009. "The distributional implications of a carbon tax in Ireland," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 407-412, February.
    12. Marc A. C. Hafstead & Roberton C. Williams III, 2020. "Jobs and Environmental Regulation," Environmental and Energy Policy and the Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 1(1), pages 192-240.
    13. Piotr Lewandowski & Iga Magda, 2018. "The labor market in Poland, 2000−2016," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 426-426, February.
    14. Olivier Jean Blanchard & Peter A. Diamond, 1989. "The Aggregate Matching Function," NBER Working Papers 3175, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Marek Antosiewicz & Piotr Lewandowski & Jan Witajewski-Baltvilks, 2016. "Input vs. Output Taxation—A DSGE Approach to Modelling Resource Decoupling," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 8(4), pages 1-17, April.
    16. Goraus Tanska,Karolina Marta & Inchauste Comboni,Maria Gabriela, 2016. "The distributional impact of taxes and transfers in Poland," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7787, The World Bank.
    17. repec:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:4:p:352:d:68060 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Arnaud Cheron & Francois Langot, 2004. "Labor Market Search and Real Business Cycles: Reconciling Nash Bargaining with the Real Wage Dynamics," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 7(2), pages 476-493, April.
    19. Takeda, Shiro, 2007. "The double dividend from carbon regulations in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 336-364, September.
    20. Marek Antosiewicz & Piotr Lewandowski & Jan Witajewski-Baltvilks, 2016. "Input vs. Output Taxation—A DSGE Approach to Modelling Resource Decoupling," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(4), pages 1-17, April.
    21. Audrey Berry, 2017. "Compensating households from carbon tax regressivity and fuel poverty: a microsimulation study," Policy Papers 2017.08, FAERE - French Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.
    22. Bureau, Benjamin, 2011. "Distributional effects of a carbon tax on car fuels in France," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 121-130, January.
    23. Lawrence H. Goulder & Andrew R. Schein, 2013. "Carbon Taxes Versus Cap And Trade: A Critical Review," Climate Change Economics (CCE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 4(03), pages 1-28.
    24. Mortensen, Dale & Pissarides, Christopher, 2011. "Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Theory of Unemployment," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 1, pages 1-19.
    25. da Silva Freitas, Lucio Flavio & de Santana Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos & de Souza, Kênia Barreiro & Hewings, Geoffrey John Dennis, 2016. "The distributional effects of emissions taxation in Brazil and their implications for climate policy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 37-44.
    26. Michal Brzezinski, 2017. "Is high inequality an issue in Poland?," IBS Policy Papers 01/2017, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych.
    27. Eisner, Anna & Kulmer, Veronika & Kortschak, Dominik, 2021. "Distributional effects of carbon pricing when considering household heterogeneity: An EASI application for Austria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C).
    28. Daniel Kiewra & Aleksander Szpor & Jan Witajewski-Baltvilks, 2019. "Sprawiedliwa transformacja weglowa w regionie slaskim. Implikacje dla rynku pracy," IBS Research Reports 02/2019, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych.
    29. Kuper, Gerard H. & van Soest, Daan P., 2003. "Path-dependency and input substitution: implications for energy policy modelling," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 397-407, July.
    30. Jan Witajewski-Baltvilks & Piotr Lewandowski & Aleksander Szpor & Jan Baran & Marek Antosiewicz, 2018. "Managing coal sector transition under the ambitious emission reduction scenario in Poland. Focus on labour," IBS Research Reports 04/2018, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych.
    31. Liang, Qiao-Mei & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2012. "Distributional impacts of taxing carbon in China: Results from the CEEPA model," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 545-551.
    32. Kirk Hamilton & Grant Cameron, 1994. "Simulating the Distributional Effects of a Canadian Carbon Tax," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 20(4), pages 385-399, December.
    33. Rausch, Sebastian & Metcalf, Gilbert E. & Reilly, John M., 2011. "Distributional impacts of carbon pricing: A general equilibrium approach with micro-data for households," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(S1), pages 20-33.
    34. Kirchner, Mathias & Sommer, Mark & Kratena, Kurt & Kletzan-Slamanig, Daniela & Kettner-Marx, Claudia, 2019. "CO2 taxes, equity and the double dividend – Macroeconomic model simulations for Austria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 295-314.
    35. Xavier Labandeira & José M. Labeaga, 1999. "Combining input-output analysis and micro-simulation to assess the effects of carbon taxation on Spanish households," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 20(3), pages 305-320, September.
    36. Bukowski, Pawel & Novokmet, Filip, 2017. "Top incomes during wars, communism and capitalism: Poland 1892-2015," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 101855, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    37. Renner, Sebastian & Lay, Jann & Greve, Hannes, 2018. "Household welfare and CO2 emission impacts of energy and carbon taxes in Mexico," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 222-235.
    38. Paweł Bukowski & Filip Novokmet, 2021. "Between communism and capitalism: long-term inequality in Poland, 1892–2015," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 187-239, June.
    39. Jan van Heerden & Reyer Gerlagh & James Blignaut & Mark Horridge & Sebastiaan Hess & Ramos Mabugu & Margaret Mabugu, 2006. "Searching for Triple Dividends in South Africa: Fighting CO2 Pollution and Poverty while Promoting Growth," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 113-142.
    40. Ysé Serret & Nick Johnstone (ed.), 2006. "The Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 3800.
    41. Andolfatto, David, 1996. "Business Cycles and Labor-Market Search," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 112-132, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Blog mentions

    As found by, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Distributional Effects of Emission Pricing in a Carbon-Intensive Economy: The Case of Poland
      by Christian Zimmermann in NEP-DGE blog on 2021-08-08 16:24:31


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Jakub Sokolowski & Marek Antosiewicz & Piotr Lewandowski, 2022. "The economic effects of stopping Russian energy Import in Poland," IBS Research Reports 01/2022, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Heindl, Peter & Löschel, Andreas, 2015. "Social implications of green growth policies from the perspective of energy sector reform and its impact on households," ZEW Discussion Papers 15-012, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    2. Wang, Qian & Hubacek, Klaus & Feng, Kuishuang & Wei, Yi-Ming & Liang, Qiao-Mei, 2016. "Distributional effects of carbon taxation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 1123-1131.
    3. Nils Ohlendorf & Michael Jakob & Jan Christoph Minx & Carsten Schröder & Jan Christoph Steckel, 2021. "Distributional Impacts of Carbon Pricing: A Meta-Analysis," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 78(1), pages 1-42, January.
    4. Tram T.H. Nguyen and Wonho Song, 2021. "Carbon Pricing and Income Inequality: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 46(2), pages 155-182, June.
    5. Nils Ohlendorf & Michael Jakob & Jan Christoph Minx & Carsten Schröder & Jan Christoph Steckel, 2018. "Distributional Impacts of Climate Mitigation Policies - a Meta-Analysis," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1776, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Wu, T. & Thomassin, P.J., 2018. "The Impact of Carbon Tax on Food Prices and Consumption in Canada," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 275913, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Paula Pereda & Andrea Lucchesi, Carolina Policarpo Garcia, Bruno Toni Palialol, 2019. "Neutral carbon tax and environmental targets in Brazil," Working Papers, Department of Economics 2019_02, University of São Paulo (FEA-USP).
    8. Waldemar Marz, 2019. "Komplexitätsdimensionen von Klimapolitik: Die Rolle von politischer Ökonomie, Kapitalmärkten und der Stadtform," ifo Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsforschung, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 85.
    9. You-Yi Guo & Jin-Xu Lin & Shih-Mo Lin, 2022. "The Distribution Effects of a Carbon Tax on Urban and Rural Households in China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(13), pages 1-15, June.
    10. Rausch, Sebastian & Schwarz, Giacomo A., 2016. "Household heterogeneity, aggregation, and the distributional impacts of environmental taxes," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 43-57.
    11. Pereira, Alfredo & Pereira, Rui, 2017. "The Role of Electricity for the Decarbonization of the Portuguese Economy - DGEP Technical Report," MPRA Paper 84782, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. John Gibson & Garth Heutel, 2020. "Pollution and Labor Market Search Externalities Over the Business Cycle," NBER Working Papers 27445, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Fragkos, Panagiotis & Fragkiadakis, Kostas & Sovacool, Benjamin & Paroussos, Leonidas & Vrontisi, Zoi & Charalampidis, Ioannis, 2021. "Equity implications of climate policy: Assessing the social and distributional impacts of emission reduction targets in the European Union," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 237(C).
    14. Wesseh, Presley K. & Lin, Boqiang & Atsagli, Philip, 2017. "Carbon taxes, industrial production, welfare and the environment," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 305-313.
    15. Mattauch, Linus & Zhao, Jiaxin, 2021. "When standards have better distributional consequences than carbon taxes," INET Oxford Working Papers 2020-25, Institute for New Economic Thinking at the Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford.
    16. Waldemar Marz, 2019. "Climate Policy and Inequality in Two-Dimensional Political Competition," ifo Working Paper Series 319, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    17. Qiao-Mei Liang & Qian Wang & Yi-Ming Wei, 2013. "Assessing the Distributional Impacts of Carbon Tax among Households across Different Income Groups: The Case of China," Energy & Environment, , vol. 24(7-8), pages 1323-1346, December.
    18. Wu, Libo & Zhang, Shuaishuai & Qian, Haoqi, 2022. "Distributional effects of China's National Emissions Trading Scheme with an emphasis on sectoral coverage and revenue recycling," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C).
    19. Garaffa, Rafael & Cunha, Bruno S.L. & Cruz, Talita & Bezerra, Paula & Lucena, André F.P. & Gurgel, Angelo C., 2021. "Distributional effects of carbon pricing in Brazil under the Paris Agreement," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C).
    20. Farrell, Niall, 2017. "What Factors Drive Inequalities in Carbon Tax Incidence? Decomposing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Carbon Tax Incidence in Ireland," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 31-45.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • P18 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Energy; Environment
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ioe:doctra:546. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Jaime Casassus (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.