IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v156y2021ics0301421521003487.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Distributional effects of carbon pricing when considering household heterogeneity: An EASI application for Austria

Author

Listed:
  • Eisner, Anna
  • Kulmer, Veronika
  • Kortschak, Dominik

Abstract

This paper studies the distributional impacts of a carbon tax in Austria and explores compensating measures to mitigate negative side effects. We extend previous studies by focussing on household heterogeneity, i.e. how housing attributes and socio-demographics govern a household's vulnerability to energy price increases. We apply the EASI demand system, which captures non-linear Engel curves and heterogeneous preferences; both crucial to estimate energy consumption. By simulating stylised, separate price increases we identify how seemingly overall similar welfare effects differ, depending on the energy good taxed, the region a household lives in, year of construction and household composition. These impact channels, with the severity of impacts differing according to various household characteristics are also reflected by the carbon tax scenario and reveal the importance of targeted support schemes. Although, each of the tested transfer schemes is able to enhance equality and cushion negative welfare effects, transfer schemes focussing on household size or on particular vulnerable population segments show the strongest effects in terms of equality, proportionality of the tax burden and welfare. Consequently, in order to yield a socially fair energy or carbon tax regime, taking household heterogeneity into account is essential.

Suggested Citation

  • Eisner, Anna & Kulmer, Veronika & Kortschak, Dominik, 2021. "Distributional effects of carbon pricing when considering household heterogeneity: An EASI application for Austria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:156:y:2021:i:c:s0301421521003487
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112478
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421521003487
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112478?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Beck, Marisa & Rivers, Nicholas & Wigle, Randall & Yonezawa, Hidemichi, 2015. "Carbon tax and revenue recycling: Impacts on households in British Columbia," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 40-69.
    2. Pashardes, Panos & Pashourtidou, Nicoletta & Zachariadis, Theodoros, 2014. "Estimating welfare aspects of changes in energy prices from preference heterogeneity," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 58-66.
    3. Renner, Sebastian & Lay, Jann & Schleicher, Michael, 2019. "The effects of energy price changes: heterogeneous welfare impacts and energy poverty in Indonesia," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(2), pages 180-200, April.
    4. Suits, Daniel B, 1977. "Measurement of Tax Progressivity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(4), pages 747-752, September.
    5. Stefano Carattini & Maria Carvalho & Sam Fankhauser, 2018. "Overcoming public resistance to carbon taxes," Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 9(5), September.
    6. Hummels, David & Lee, Kwan Yong, 2018. "The income elasticity of import demand: Micro evidence and an application," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 20-34.
    7. Renner, Sebastian & Lay, Jann & Schleicher, Michael, 2017. "The Effects of Energy Price Changes: Heterogeneous Welfare Impacts, Energy Poverty, and CO2 Emissions in Indonesia," GIGA Working Papers 302, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
    8. Frank J. Convery & Louise Dunne & Deirdre Joyce, 2013. "Ireland's Carbon Tax and the Fiscal Crisis: Issues in Fiscal Adjustment, Environmental Effectiveness, Competitiveness, Leakage and Equity Implications," OECD Environment Working Papers 59, OECD Publishing.
    9. Nikodinoska, Dragana & Schröder, Carsten, 2016. "On the emissions–inequality and emissions–welfare trade-offs in energy taxation: Evidence on the German car fuels tax," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 206-233.
    10. Labandeira, Xavier & Labeaga, José M. & Rodríguez, Miguel, 2009. "An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5776-5786, December.
    11. Julius J. Andersson, 2019. "Carbon Taxes and CO2 Emissions: Sweden as a Case Study," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 11(4), pages 1-30, November.
    12. Moshiri, Saeed & Martinez Santillan, Miguel Alfonso, 2018. "The welfare effects of energy price changes due to energy market reform in Mexico," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 663-672.
    13. Ástmarsson, Björn & Jensen, Per Anker & Maslesa, Esmir, 2013. "Sustainable renovation of residential buildings and the landlord/tenant dilemma," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 355-362.
    14. Arthur Lewbel & Krishna Pendakur, 2009. "Tricks with Hicks: The EASI Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 827-863, June.
    15. Awudu Abdulai, 2002. "Household Demand for Food in Switzerland. A Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 138(I), pages 1-18, March.
    16. Kirchner, Mathias & Sommer, Mark & Kratena, Kurt & Kletzan-Slamanig, Daniela & Kettner-Marx, Claudia, 2019. "CO2 taxes, equity and the double dividend – Macroeconomic model simulations for Austria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 295-314.
    17. Klenert, David & Mattauch, Linus & Combet, Emmanuel & Edenhofer, Ottmar & Hepburn, Cameron & Rafaty, Ryan & Stern, Nicholas, 2017. "Making Carbon Pricing Work," MPRA Paper 80943, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Renner, Sebastian & Lay, Jann & Greve, Hannes, 2018. "Household welfare and CO2 emission impacts of energy and carbon taxes in Mexico," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 222-235.
    19. Schulte, Isabella & Heindl, Peter, 2017. "Price and income elasticities of residential energy demand in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 512-528.
    20. James Banks & Richard Blundell & Arthur Lewbel, 1997. "Quadratic Engel Curves And Consumer Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 527-539, November.
    21. Lint Barrage, 2020. "Optimal Dynamic Carbon Taxes in a Climate–Economy Model with Distortionary Fiscal Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(1), pages 1-39.
    22. D Moro & P Sckokai, 2000. "Heterogeneous preferences in household food consumption in Italy," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 27(3), pages 305-323, September.
    23. Tiezzi, Silvia, 2005. "The welfare effects and the distributive impact of carbon taxation on Italian households," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 1597-1612, August.
    24. Carl, Jeremy & Fedor, David, 2016. "Tracking global carbon revenues: A survey of carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade in the real world," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 50-77.
    25. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-326, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Antosiewicz, Marek & Fuentes, J. Rodrigo & Lewandowski, Piotr & Witajewski-Baltvilks, Jan, 2022. "Distributional effects of emission pricing in a carbon-intensive economy: The case of Poland," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 160(C).
    2. Leif Jacobs & Lara Quack & Mario Mechtel, 2021. "Distributional Effects of Carbon Pricing by Transport Fuel Taxation," Working Paper Series in Economics 405, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Nils Ohlendorf & Michael Jakob & Jan Christoph Minx & Carsten Schröder & Jan Christoph Steckel, 2021. "Distributional Impacts of Carbon Pricing: A Meta-Analysis," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 78(1), pages 1-42, January.
    2. Nils Ohlendorf & Michael Jakob & Jan Christoph Minx & Carsten Schröder & Jan Christoph Steckel, 2018. "Distributional Impacts of Climate Mitigation Policies - a Meta-Analysis," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1776, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    3. Tovar Reaños, Miguel A. & Lynch, Muireann Á., 2022. "Measuring carbon tax incidence using a fully flexible demand system. Vertical and horizontal effects using Irish data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 160(C).
    4. Schulte, Isabella & Heindl, Peter, 2017. "Price and income elasticities of residential energy demand in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 512-528.
    5. Tovar Reanos, Miguel, 2020. "Car ownership and the distributional and environmental policies to reduce driving behavior," Papers WP673, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    6. Heindl, Peter & Löschel, Andreas, 2015. "Social implications of green growth policies from the perspective of energy sector reform and its impact on households," MEP Discussion Papers 81, University of Münster, Münster Center for Economic Policy (MEP).
    7. Tovar Reaños, Miguel A., 2021. "Floods, flood policies and changes in welfare and inequality: Evidence from Germany," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 180(C).
    8. Pothen, Frank & Tovar Reaños, Miguel Angel, 2018. "The Distribution of Material Footprints in Germany," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 237-251.
    9. Tovar Reaños, Miguel A. & Wölfing, Nikolas M., 2018. "Household energy prices and inequality: Evidence from German microdata based on the EASI demand system," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 84-97.
    10. Andr'es Ram'irez-Hassan & Alejandro L'opez-Vera, 2021. "Semi-parametric estimation of the EASI model: Welfare implications of taxes identifying clusters due to unobserved preference heterogeneity," Papers 2109.07646, arXiv.org.
    11. Moz-Christofoletti, Maria Alice & Pereda, Paula Carvalho, 2021. "Winners and losers: the distributional impacts of a carbon tax in Brazil," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 183(C).
    12. Tovar Reaños, Miguel & Lynch, Muireann Á., 2019. "Distributional impacts of carbon taxation and revenue recycling: a behavioural microsimulation," Papers WP626, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    13. Distante, Roberta & Verdolini, Elena & Tavoni, Massimo, 2016. "Distributional and Welfare Impacts of Renewable Subsidies in Italy," MITP: Mitigation, Innovation and Transformation Pathways 236238, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    14. Jacobs, Bas & van der Ploeg, Frederick, 2019. "Redistribution and pollution taxes with non-linear Engel curves," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 198-226.
    15. Andrej Cupák & Peter Tóth, 2017. "Measuring the Efficiency of VAT reforms: Evidence from Slovakia," Working and Discussion Papers WP 6/2017, Research Department, National Bank of Slovakia.
    16. Wang, Qian & Hubacek, Klaus & Feng, Kuishuang & Wei, Yi-Ming & Liang, Qiao-Mei, 2016. "Distributional effects of carbon taxation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 1123-1131.
    17. Marian Rizov & Andrej Cupak & Jan Pokrivcak, 2015. "Food security and household consumption patterns in Slovakia," LICOS Discussion Papers 36015, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    18. van der Ploeg, Frederick & Rezai, Armon & Tovar Reanos, Miguel, 2022. "Gathering support for green tax reform: Evidence from German household surveys," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
    19. Gould, Brian W. & Dong, Diansheng, 2004. "Product Quality And The Demand For Food: The Case Of Urban China," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20010, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    20. Irz, Xavier & Mazzocchi, Mario & Réquillart, Vincent & Soler, Louis-Georges, 2015. "Research in Food Economics: past trends and new challenges," Revue d'Etudes en Agriculture et Environnement, Editions NecPlus, vol. 96(01), pages 187-237, March.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:156:y:2021:i:c:s0301421521003487. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.