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Tracking global carbon revenues: A survey of carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade in the real world

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  • Carl, Jeremy
  • Fedor, David

Abstract

We investigate the current use of public revenues which are generated through both carbon taxes and cap-and-trade systems. More than $28.3 billion in government “carbon revenues” are currently collected each year in 40 countries and another 16 states or provinces around the world. Of those revenues, 27% ($7.8 billion) are used to subsidize “green” spending in energy efficiency or renewable energy; 26% ($7.4 billion) go toward state general funds; and 36% ($10.1 billion) are returned to corporate or individual taxpayers through paired tax cuts or direct rebates. Cap-and-trade systems ($6.57 billion in total public revenue) earmark a larger share of revenues for “green” spending (70%), while carbon tax systems ($21.7 billion) more commonly refund revenues or otherwise direct them towards government general funds (72% of revenues). Drawing from an empirical dataset, we also identify various trends in systems’ use of “carbon revenues” in terms of the total revenues collected annually per capita in each jurisdiction and offer commensurate qualitative observations on carbon policy design choices.

Suggested Citation

  • Carl, Jeremy & Fedor, David, 2016. "Tracking global carbon revenues: A survey of carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade in the real world," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 50-77.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:96:y:2016:i:c:p:50-77
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.05.023
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:eee:appene:v:211:y:2018:i:c:p:1021-1029 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Liu, Yang & Han, Liyan & Yin, Ziqiao & Luo, Kongyi, 2017. "A competitive carbon emissions scheme with hybrid fiscal incentives: The evidence from a taxi industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 414-422.
    3. Andreas Welling, 2017. "Optimal Carbon Tax Scheme under Uncertainty in an Oligopolistic Market of Polluters," FEMM Working Papers 170001, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Faculty of Economics and Management.
    4. repec:eee:appene:v:197:y:2017:i:c:p:270-278 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Klenert, David & Mattauch, Linus & Combet, Emmanuel & Edenhofer, Ottmar & Hepburn, Cameron & Rafaty, Ryan & Stern, Nicholas, 2017. "Making Carbon Pricing Work," MPRA Paper 80943, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. repec:gam:jeners:v:10:y:2017:i:7:p:980-:d:104466 is not listed on IDEAS

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