IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/appene/v116y2014icp344-354.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Alton, Theresa
  • Arndt, Channing
  • Davies, Rob
  • Hartley, Faaiqa
  • Makrelov, Konstantin
  • Thurlow, James
  • Ubogu, Dumebi

Abstract

South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO2, constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity.

Suggested Citation

  • Alton, Theresa & Arndt, Channing & Davies, Rob & Hartley, Faaiqa & Makrelov, Konstantin & Thurlow, James & Ubogu, Dumebi, 2014. "Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 344-354.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:116:y:2014:i:c:p:344-354
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.11.034
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261913009288
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.11.034?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Böhringer, Christoph & Balistreri, Edward J. & Rutherford, Thomas F., 2012. "The role of border carbon adjustment in unilateral climate policy: Overview of an Energy Modeling Forum study (EMF 29)," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages 97-110.
    2. Channing Arndt & Rob Davies & Konstantin Makrelov & James Thurlow, 2013. "Measuring the Carbon Intensity of the South African Economy," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 81(3), pages 393-415, September.
    3. Zhang, Yue-Jun & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2010. "An overview of current research on EU ETS: Evidence from its operating mechanism and economic effect," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1804-1814, June.
    4. Liang, Qiao-Mei & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2012. "Distributional impacts of taxing carbon in China: Results from the CEEPA model," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 545-551.
    5. World Bank, 2012. "World Development Indicators 2012," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 6014, November.
    6. Herring, Horace, 1999. "Does energy efficiency save energy? The debate and its consequences," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 209-226, July.
    7. Martin L. Weitzman, 2011. "Fat-Tailed Uncertainty in the Economics of Catastrophic Climate Change," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(2), pages 275-292, Summer.
    8. repec:hrv:faseco:34728611 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Danielle Resnick & Finn Tarp & James Thurlow, 2012. "The Political Economy Of Green Growth: Cases From Southern Africa," Public Administration & Development, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 215-228, August.
    10. Liu, Xianbing & Niu, Dongjie & Bao, Cunkuan & Suk, Sunhee & Sudo, Kinichi, 2013. "Affordability of energy cost increases for companies due to market-based climate policies: A survey in Taicang, China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 1464-1476.
    11. Jan van Heerden & Reyer Gerlagh & James Blignaut & Mark Horridge & Sebastiaan Hess & Ramos Mabugu & Margaret Mabugu, 2006. "Searching for Triple Dividends in South Africa: Fighting CO2 Pollution and Poverty while Promoting Growth," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 113-142.
    12. Devarajan Shantayanan & Go Delfin S & Robinson Sherman & Thierfelder Karen, 2011. "Tax Policy to Reduce Carbon Emissions in a Distorted Economy: Illustrations from a South Africa CGE Model," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-24, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Alberto Gago & Xavier Labandeira & Xiral López Otero, 2014. "A Panorama on Energy Taxes and Green Tax Reforms," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 208(1), pages 145-190, March.
    2. Zhang, Zengkai & Zhu, Kunfu, 2017. "Border carbon adjustments for exports of the United States and the European Union: Taking border-crossing frequency into account," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 201(C), pages 188-199.
    3. Alton, Theresa & Arndt, Channing & Davies, Rob & Hartley, Faaiqa & Makrelov, Konstantin & Thurlow, James & Ubogu, Dumebi, 2012. "The Economic Implications of Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series 046, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    4. Wesseh, Presley K. & Lin, Boqiang & Atsagli, Philip, 2017. "Carbon taxes, industrial production, welfare and the environment," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 305-313.
    5. repec:unu:wpaper:wp2012-46 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Theresa Alton & Channing Arndt & Rob Davies & Faaiqa Hartley & Konstantin Makrelov & James Thurlow & Dumebi Ubogu, 2012. "The Economic Implications of Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2012-046, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Wesseh, Presley K. & Lin, Boqiang, 2016. "Modeling environmental policy with and without abatement substitution: A tradeoff between economics and environment?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 34-43.
    8. Li, Aijun & Du, Nan & Wei, Qian, 2014. "The cross-country implications of alternative climate policies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 155-163.
    9. Chen, Anping & Groenewold, Nicolaas, 2015. "Emission reduction policy: A regional economic analysis for China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 136-152.
    10. Orlov, Anton & Grethe, Harald & McDonald, Scott, 2013. "Carbon taxation in Russia: Prospects for a double dividend and improved energy efficiency," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 128-140.
    11. World Bank, 2011. "South Africa Economic Update, November 2011," World Bank Publications - Reports 26854, The World Bank Group.
    12. Nong, Duy, 2020. "Development of the electricity-environmental policy CGE model (GTAP-E-PowerS): A case of the carbon tax in South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    13. Heindl, Peter & Löschel, Andreas, 2015. "Social implications of green growth policies from the perspective of energy sector reform and its impact on households," ZEW Discussion Papers 15-012, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    14. Antosiewicz, Marek & Fuentes, J. Rodrigo & Lewandowski, Piotr & Witajewski-Baltvilks, Jan, 2022. "Distributional effects of emission pricing in a carbon-intensive economy: The case of Poland," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 160(C).
    15. Wu, T. & Thomassin, P.J., 2018. "The Impact of Carbon Tax on Food Prices and Consumption in Canada," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 275913, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    16. Andualem Telaye Mengistu & Pablo Benitez & Seneshaw Tamru & Haileselassie Medhin & Michael Toman, 2019. "Exploring Carbon Pricing in Developing Countries: A Macroeconomic Analysis in Ethiopia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(16), pages 1-21, August.
    17. Nong, Duy & Simshauser, Paul & Nguyen, Duong Binh, 2021. "Greenhouse gas emissions vs CO2 emissions: Comparative analysis of a global carbon tax," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 298(C).
    18. Qian Wang & Qiao-Mei Liang, 2015. "Will a carbon tax hinder China’s efforts to improve its primary income distribution status?," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 20(8), pages 1407-1436, December.
    19. Koesler, Simon & Swales, Kim & Turner, Karen, 2014. "Beyond national economy-wide rebound effects: An applied general equilibrium analysis incorporating international spillover effects," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-025, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    20. Jessika A. Bohlmann & Roula Inglesi-Lotz & Heinrich R. Bohlmann, 2022. "Carbon Tax and its Impact on South African Households," Working Papers 202248, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    21. Sifiso M. Ntombela & Heinrich R. Bohlmann & Mmatlou W. Kalaba, 2019. "Greening the South Africa’s Economy Could Benefit the Food Sector: Evidence from a Carbon Tax Policy Assessment," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 74(2), pages 891-910, October.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:116:y:2014:i:c:p:344-354. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/description#description .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.