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Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?

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  • Fæhn, Taran
  • Gómez-Plana, Antonio G.
  • Kverndokk, Snorre

Abstract

This paper analyses the impact of carbon policy on unemployment in Spain and whether recycling the public revenues earned from permit auctions can alleviate this problem. While Spain's deviation from the European Union's intermediate emission goals is more serious than most other member countries' unemployment in Spain is also well above average for the European Union. We use a computable general equilibrium model that includes unemployment in the markets for unskilled and skilled labour. We find that introducing carbon permits does not aggravate Spanish unemployment. In fact, if supplied with revenue recycling schemes, unemployment rates may actually fall. Contrary to other European studies, we find that the best option is to reduce payroll taxes on relatively skilled types of labour. This reform is successful in both increasing labour demand and dampening the supply response to rising wages. However, while all of the recycling schemes generate dividends in terms of aggregate welfare, none entirely offsets the abatement costs.

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  • Fæhn, Taran & Gómez-Plana, Antonio G. & Kverndokk, Snorre, 2009. "Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 595-604, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:31:y:2009:i:4:p:595-604
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    Cited by:

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    3. AlShehabi, Omar Hesham, 2013. "Modelling energy and labour linkages: A CGE approach with an application to Iran," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 88-98.
    4. González-Eguino, Mikel, 2011. "The importance of the design of market-based instruments for CO2 mitigation: An AGE analysis for Spain," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(12), pages 2292-2302.
    5. Baran, Jan & Szpor, Aleksander & Witajewski-Baltvilks, Jan, 2020. "Low-carbon transition in a coal-producing country: A labour market perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C).
    6. Sanz, Nicolas & Schwartz, Sonia, 2013. "Are pollution permit markets harmful for employment?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 374-383.
    7. Mu, Yaqian & Cai, Wenjia & Evans, Samuel & Wang, Can & Roland-Holst, David, 2018. "Employment impacts of renewable energy policies in China: A decomposition analysis based on a CGE modeling framework," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 210(C), pages 256-267.
    8. Bjertnæs, Geir H. & Fæhn, Taran, 2008. "Energy taxation in a small, open economy: Social efficiency gains versus industrial concerns," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 2050-2071, July.
    9. Oral, Isil & Santos, Indhira & Zhang, Fan, 2012. "Climate change policies and employment in Eastern Europe and Central Asia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6294, The World Bank.
    10. Markandya, Anil & González-Eguino, Mikel & Escapa, Marta, 2013. "From shadow to green: Linking environmental fiscal reforms and the informal economy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(S1), pages 108-118.
    11. Mahmood, Arshad & Marpaung, Charles O.P., 2014. "Carbon pricing and energy efficiency improvement -- why to miss the interaction for developing economies? An illustrative CGE based application to the Pakistan case," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 87-103.
    12. Boeters, Stefan & Savard, Luc, 2013. "The Labor Market in Computable General Equilibrium Models," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, in: Peter B. Dixon & Dale Jorgenson (ed.), Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 1645-1718, Elsevier.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Spanish unemployment Tax reform Emission permit auctions Employment dividend Computable general equilibrium models;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • J68 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Public Policy
    • Q38 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy (includes OPEC Policy)

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