IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/arx/papers/1909.01327.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Bias and Consistency in Three-way Gravity Models

Author

Listed:
  • Martin Weidner
  • Thomas Zylkin

Abstract

We study the incidental parameter problem in "three-way" Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood ("PPML") gravity models recently recommended for identifying the effects of trade policies and in other network panel data settings. Despite the number and variety of fixed effects this model entails, we confirm it is consistent for small $T$ and we show it is in fact the only estimator among a wide range of PML gravity estimators that is generally consistent in this context when $T$ is small. At the same time, asymptotic confidence intervals in fixed-$T$ panels are not correctly centered at the true point estimates, and cluster-robust variance estimates used to construct standard errors are generally biased as well. We characterize each of these biases analytically and show both numerically and empirically that they are salient even for real-data settings with a large number of countries. We also offer practical remedies that can be used to obtain more reliable inferences of the effects of trade policies and other time-varying gravity variables.

Suggested Citation

  • Martin Weidner & Thomas Zylkin, 2019. "Bias and Consistency in Three-way Gravity Models," Papers 1909.01327, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2020.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1909.01327
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.01327
    File Function: Latest version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hausman, Jerry & Hall, Bronwyn H & Griliches, Zvi, 1984. "Econometric Models for Count Data with an Application to the Patents-R&D Relationship," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(4), pages 909-938, July.
    2. Hansen, Christian B., 2007. "Asymptotic properties of a robust variance matrix estimator for panel data when T is large," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 141(2), pages 597-620, December.
    3. Bryan S. Graham, 2017. "An Econometric Model of Network Formation With Degree Heterogeneity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 85, pages 1033-1063, July.
    4. Peter C. B. Phillips & Hyungsik R. Moon, 1999. "Linear Regression Limit Theory for Nonstationary Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(5), pages 1057-1112, September.
    5. Moon, Hyungsik Roger & Weidner, Martin, 2017. "Dynamic Linear Panel Regression Models With Interactive Fixed Effects," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 33(1), pages 158-195, February.
    6. Hinz, Julian & Stammann, Amrei & Wanner, Joschka, 2019. "Persistent zeros: The extensive margin of trade," Kiel Working Papers 2139, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jochmans, K. & Verardi, V., 2019. "Instrumental-Variable Estimation of Gravity Equations," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1994, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1909.01327. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (arXiv administrators). General contact details of provider: http://arxiv.org/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.