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Capital Flows to Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

In: Capital Flows and the Emerging Economies: Theory, Evidence, and Controversies

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  • Stijn Claessens
  • Daniel Oks
  • Rossana Polastri

Abstract

The capital flows to Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU) represent a relatively small, albeit growing share of capital flows to developing countries. Taking all flows together, the total net flows to these 25 countries (Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan) were about $44 billion in 1996 or about 1/8 of aggregate net flows to all developing countries. These countries accounted, however, for about 20 and 22 percent respectively of all developing countries Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and exports in 1996. As a fraction of their GDP, total inflows were consequently smaller than for many other developing countries, and averaged about 5.4 percent over the 1990-96 periods. In more recent years, there has been a more rapid inflow of private capital, as reform efforts have consolidated and economic prospects improved and, for some countries, as European Union (EU) integration became a possibility for the near future. For some countries, short-term capital has recently become an important source of external financing. Since most countries have been late comers to the phenomenon of large private capital inflows, they have not experienced much of the overheating phenomena which have affected other developing countries in the past (Latin America) and recently (East Asia). The paper is organized as follows. Section II briefly describes the facts on capital flows to these countries. Section III discusses important links and relationships between macroeconomic variables and the capital flows, including some of the basic motivations, and causes for capital flows. Section IV describes and analyzes the policy framework and policy responses in those countries that received the bulk of capital flows. Econometric tests are presented in
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Suggested Citation

  • Stijn Claessens & Daniel Oks & Rossana Polastri, 2000. "Capital Flows to Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union," NBER Chapters,in: Capital Flows and the Emerging Economies: Theory, Evidence, and Controversies, pages 299-339 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:6171
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    Cited by:

    1. Carlos Andrés Amaya G. & Peter Rowland, 2004. "Determinants Of Investment Flows Into Emerging Markets," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 002334, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    2. Carmen Reinhart & Vincent Reinhart, 2009. "Capital Flow Bonanzas: An Encompassing View of the Past and Present," NBER Chapters,in: NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics 2008, pages 9-62 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Bordo, Michael D. & Schwartz, Anna J., 2000. "Measuring real economic effects of bailouts: historical perspectives on how countries in financial distress have fared with and without bailouts," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 81-167, December.
    4. Kashif Mansori, 2003. "Following in their Footsteps: Comparing Interest Parity Conditions in Central European Economies to the Euro Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 1020, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Bos J.W.B. & Laar M. van de, 2004. "Explaining Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe: an Extended Gravitiy Approach," Research Memorandum 041, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
    6. Sõrg, Mart, 2007. "Estonia's high current account deficit has special reasons," Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Diskussionspapiere 13/2007, University of Greifswald, Faculty of Law and Economics.
    7. Fidel Pérez Sebastián & Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar, 2005. "Sovereign Risk, Fdi Spillovers, And Economic Growth," Working Papers. Serie AD 2005-27, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    8. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:12:p:2771-2831 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Carlos Andrés Amaya & Peter Rowland, 2004. "Determinants of Investment Flows into Emerging Markets," Borradores de Economia 313, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    10. Josef C. Brada & Ali M. Kutan & Taner M. Yigit, 2004. "The Effects of Transition and Political Instability On Foreign Direct Investment Inflows: Central Europe and the Balkans," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp729, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    11. Bonin, John & Wachtel, Paul, 2002. "Financial sector development in transition economies : Lessons from the first decade," BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2002, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    12. Talley, Samuel & Giugale, Marcelo M. & Polastri, Rossana, 1998. "Capital inflow reversals, banking stability, and prudential regulation in Central and Eastern Europe," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2023, The World Bank.
    13. Masahiro Tokunaga & Ichiro Iwasaki, 2017. "The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Transition Economies: A Meta-analysis," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(12), pages 2771-2831, December.
    14. Zsoka Koczan, 2017. "Late to the game? Capital flows to the Western Balkans," IMF Working Papers 17/92, International Monetary Fund.
    15. Tokunaga, Masahiro & Iwasaki, Ichiro, 2014. "Transition and FDI: A Meta-Analysis of the FDI Determinants in Transition Economies," RRC Working Paper Series 47, Russian Research Center, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.

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