IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/etrans/v5y1997i2p305-322.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

State enterprise performance and soft budget constraints: The case of Bulgaria

Author

Listed:
  • Stijn Claessens
  • R. Kyle Peters

Abstract

This paper analyses the performance of state enterprises in Bulgaria during 1992-94. Consistent with the literature on other transitional economies, this paper finds that one key factor underlying (the lack of) enterprise adjustment in Bulgaria during this period was the availability of financing. Empirically, the (lack of) past adjustment and the softness of finance are the best predictors of current adjustment. Many state enterprises, mostly smaller ones, appear to have adjusted to the new economic structure, partly in response to tighter budget constraints. However, a number of large, hard-core lossmaking state enterprises did not adjust, due primarily to the soft budget constraints that they faced. These enterprises crowded out profitable enterprises, both public and private, through their large financing requirements, adversely affecting economic growth. Moreover, continued bank financing of these large loss-makers decapitalized the banking system, and budgetary financing of their losses, largely through tax arrears, has undermined fiscal policy. This lack of enterprise adjustment and the resulting financial indiscipline lies at the core of the macroeconomic difficulties that Bulgaria has recently faced. Copyright The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1997.

Suggested Citation

  • Stijn Claessens & R. Kyle Peters, 1997. "State enterprise performance and soft budget constraints: The case of Bulgaria," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 5(2), pages 305-322, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:etrans:v:5:y:1997:i:2:p:305-322
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-0351.1997.tb00019.x
    File Function: link to full text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hoekman, Bernard & Pohl, Gerhard, 1995. "Enterprise restructuring in Eastern Europe : how much? how fast? where? - preliminary evidence from trade data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1433, The World Bank.
    2. Djankov, Simeon & Hoekman, Bernard, 1995. "Trade Liberalization and Enterprise Restructuring in Bulgaria, 1992-4," CEPR Discussion Papers 1301, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Pohl, G. & Djankov, S. & Anderson, R.E., 1996. "Restructuring Large Industrial Firms in Central and Eastern Europe: An Empirical Analysis," Papers 332, World Bank - Technical Papers.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Herbert Brücker & Philipp Schröder, 2007. "EU accession and the hardening of soft budget constraints: some macro evidence," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 235-252, September.
    2. Clarke, George R.G. & Cull, Robert & Shirley, Mary M., 2005. "Bank privatization in developing countries: A summary of lessons and findings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(8-9), pages 1905-1930, August.
    3. Kornai, János & Maskin, Eric & Roland, Gérard, 2004. "A puha költségvetési korlát - II
      [The soft budget constraint II]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(9), pages 777-809.
    4. J. Kornai & E. Maskin & G. Roland., 2004. "Understanding the Soft Budget Constraint," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 12.
    5. Desai, Raj M. & Olofsgard, Anders, 2006. "The political advantage of soft budget constraints," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 370-387, June.
    6. Irina Akimova & Gerhard Schwödiauer, 1999. "Restructuring of Ukrainian Enterprises after Privatization: Does Ownership Structure Matter?," Industrial Organization 9903003, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Stijn Claessens & Daniel Oks & Rossana Polastri, 2000. "Capital Flows to Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union," NBER Chapters,in: Capital Flows and the Emerging Economies: Theory, Evidence, and Controversies, pages 299-339 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. repec:dgr:rugsom:00e05 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Budina, Nina & Garretsen, Harry & Jong, Eelke de, 1999. "Liquidity constraints and investment in transition economies : the case of Bulgaria," Research Report 00E05, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
    10. Maoyong Cheng & Hong Zhao & Junrui Zhang, 2014. "What precludes the development of noninterest activities in Chinese commercial banks from the perspective of the price of interest activities?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(21), pages 2453-2461, July.
    11. Sébastien Charles & Jonathan Marie, 2016. "Hyperinflation bulgare de 1997 : transition, fragilité bancaire et change," CEPN Working Papers 2016-13, Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord.
    12. Vassilis Monastiriotis, 2008. "The Emergence of Regional Policy in Bulgaria: regional problems, EU influences and domestic constraints," GreeSE – Hellenic Observatory Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe 15, Hellenic Observatory, LSE.
    13. Lin, Xiaochi & Zhang, Yi, 2009. "Bank ownership reform and bank performance in China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 20-29, January.
    14. Kaminski, Bartlomiej & Ng, Francis, 2006. "Bulgaria's integration into the Pan-European economy and industrial restructuring," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3863, The World Bank.
    15. Brucker, Herbert & Schroder, Philipp J.H. & Weise, Christian, 2005. "Can EU conditionality remedy soft budget constraints in transition countries?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 371-386, June.
    16. Kornai, Janos, 2001. "Hardening the budget constraint: The experience of the post-socialist countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 1573-1599, October.
    17. Toyofuku, Kenta, 2013. "Stability or restructuring? Macroeconomic dynamics under soft budget constraint problems," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 625-649.
    18. Kornai, János, 2000. "A költségvetési korlát megkeményítése a posztszocialista országokban
      [Hardening of the budget constraint in the post-socialist countries]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(1), pages 1-22.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:etrans:v:5:y:1997:i:2:p:305-322. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley Content Delivery) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ebrdduk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.