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A Model of an Optimum Currency Area


  • Ricci, Luca Antonio


This paper develops a model of the circumstances under which it is beneficial to participate in a currency area. The proposed two-country monetary model of trade with nominal rigidities encompasses the real and monetary arguments suggested by the optimum currency area literature: correlation of real and monetary shocks, international factor mobility, fiscal adjustment, openness, difference in national inflationary biases, and transactions costs. The effect of openness on the net benefits is ambiguous, contrary to the usual argument that more open economies are better candidates for a currency area. Also, prospective member countries do not necessarily agree on whether a given currency union should be created.

Suggested Citation

  • Ricci, Luca Antonio, 2008. "A Model of an Optimum Currency Area," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 2, pages 1-31.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ifweej:7125

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    Cited by:

    1. Tomasz Brodzicki, 2012. "On optimality or non-optimality of the eurozone," Working Papers of Economics of European Integration Division 1201, The Univeristy of Gdansk, Faculty of Economics, Economics of European Integration Division.
    2. Lee, Grace H.Y. & Koh, Sharon G.M., 2012. "The prospects of a monetary union in East Asia," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 96-102.
    3. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Aizenman, Joshua, 2011. "Capital market imperfections and the theory of optimum currency areas," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1659-1675.
    4. Grace H.Y. Lee & M. Azali, 2009. "Optimum Currency Areas in East Asia: A Structural VAR Approach," Monash Economics Working Papers 19-09, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    5. João Sousa Andrade & António Portugal Duarte, 2015. "Optimum Currency Areas, Real and Nominal Convergence in the European Union," Notas Económicas, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, issue 42, pages 8-29, December.
    6. Agnès Bénassy-Quéré & Véronique Salins, 2010. "A Case for Intermediate Exchange-Rate Regimes," Working Papers 2010-14, CEPII research center.
    7. Charles Wyplosz, 1997. "EMU: Why and How It Might Happen," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(4), pages 3-21, Fall.
    8. Lee, Grace H.Y., 2011. "Gold dinar for the Islamic countries?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 1573-1586, July.
    9. Laura Mădălina PÎRŞCOVEANU, 2016. "Estimating the exchange rate in the context of Romania's integration in the Eurozone," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(2(607), S), pages 249-258, Summer.
    10. Pierre Jaillet & Emmanuel Carrère, 2004. "La Zone franc, une zone monétaire robuste, en voie d’intégration économique," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 75(2), pages 183-209.
    11. Heinemann, Friedrich, 1998. "Die Theorie der optimalen Währungsräume und die politische Reformfähigkeit: Ein vernachlässigtes Kriterium," ZEW Discussion Papers 98-02, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    12. Lucio Vinhas de Souza & Holger van Eden & Albert de Groot & Gerbert Romijn & Elisabeth Ledrut, 2001. "EMU and Enlargement: A Review of Policy Issues," Macroeconomics 0012019, EconWPA.
    13. Raoul Lättemäe, 2003. "EMU Accession Issues in Baltic Countries," Eastward Enlargement of the Euro-zone Working Papers wp17a, Free University Berlin, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, revised 01 May 2003.
    14. Ricci, Luca Antonio & Isard, Peter, 2002. "European monetary union, adjustment, and exchange rate variability," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 229-251, February.
    15. Katrin Elborgh-Woytek & Julian Berengaut, 2006. "Beauty Queens and Wallflowers; Currency Unions in the Middle East and Central Asia," IMF Working Papers 06/226, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Zahir, Antia & Djoudad, Ramdane & St-Amant, Pierre, 1999. "Canada’s Exchange Rate Regime and North American Economic Integration: The Role of Risk-Sharing Mechanisms," Staff Working Papers 99-17, Bank of Canada.
    17. Gerardo Licandro, 2000. "Is Mercosur an Optimal Currency Area? A shock correlation perspective," Documentos de trabajo 2000004, Banco Central del Uruguay.
    18. Paolo Mauro & Grace Juhn, 2002. "Long-Run Determinants of Exchange Rate Regimes; A Simple Sensitivity Analysis," IMF Working Papers 02/104, International Monetary Fund.
    19. Michel Beine & Bertrand Candelon & Alain Hecq, 2000. "Assessing a Perfect European Optimum Currency Area: A Common Cycles Approach," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 27(2), pages 115-132, June.
    20. Laura Mădălina PÎRŞCOVEANU, 2016. "Estimating the exchange rate in the context of Romania's integration in the Eurozone," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(2(607), S), pages 249-258, Summer.
    21. Buscher, Herbert S., 1999. "Business Cycles in EU Member States," ZEW Discussion Papers 99-16, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    22. Bamba, Lambert N'galadjo, 2004. "Analyse du Processus de Convergence Dans la Zone UEMOA," WIDER Working Paper Series 018, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    23. Julius Horvath, 2004. "Optimum currency area theory: A selective review," Macroeconomics 0401014, EconWPA.
    24. Sergey Drobyshevsky & Dmitri Polevoy, 2004. "Problems Associated with Creation of a Single Currency Zone in the CIS Countries," Research Paper Series, Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, issue 80P, pages 110-110.

    More about this item


    Optimum currency areas; cost- benefit analysis; exchange rate regimes; currency union; monetary integration;

    JEL classification:

    • H77 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E61 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance


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