IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cpr/ceprdp/915.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Is Europe an Optimum Currency Area?

Author

Listed:
  • Bofinger, Peter

Abstract

The debate on EMU has been very influenced by the traditional theory of optimum currency areas (OCAs). The paper shows that this theory is not an ideal yardstick for an assessment of EMU. Its assumptions are not very realistic and its focus on asymmetric real shocks is much too narrow. In addition, observed past real exchange rate changes are not a good predictor of future real shocks in the European Union (EU). In general, the OCA approach is heavily biased towards very small currency areas. Because of these shortcomings the paper develops a monetary approach to the theory of OCAs. In this concept the choice between a monetary union and independent national currency areas is analysed from the perspective of monetary policy efficiency. It can be shown that EMU is superior to national currency areas in terms of credibility, the response to asymmetric monetary shocks and the effectiveness of monetary targets and instruments.

Suggested Citation

  • Bofinger, Peter, 1994. "Is Europe an Optimum Currency Area?," CEPR Discussion Papers 915, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:915
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=915
    Download Restriction: CEPR Discussion Papers are free to download for our researchers, subscribers and members. If you fall into one of these categories but have trouble downloading our papers, please contact us at subscribers@cepr.org

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ricci, Luca Antonio, 2008. "A Model of an Optimum Currency Area," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 2, pages 1-31.
    2. Kenen, Peter B., 2000. "Currency areas, policy domains, and the institutionalization of fixed exchange rates," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20170, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. João Sousa Andrade & António Portugal Duarte, 2015. "Optimum Currency Areas, Real and Nominal Convergence in the European Union," Notas Económicas, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, issue 42, pages 8-29, December.
    4. Weimann, Marco, 2002. "OCA theory and EMU eastern enlargement: An empirical application," Dresden Discussion Paper Series in Economics 07/02, Technische Universität Dresden, Faculty of Business and Economics, Department of Economics.
    5. Hans Grüner & Carsten Hefeker, 1996. "Bank cooperation and banking policy in a monetary union: A political-economy perspective on EMU," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 183-198, July.
    6. repec:onb:oenbwp:y::i:23:b:1 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Franz Pauer, 1996. "Will Asymmetric Shocks Pose a Serious Problem in EMU?," Working Papers 23, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    8. Horvath, Julius & Ratfai, Attila, 2004. "Supply and demand shocks in accession countries to the Economic and Monetary Union," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 202-211, June.
    9. Jean Pisani-Ferry, 1994. "Union monétaire et convergence : qu'avons nous appris ?," Working Papers 1994-14, CEPII research center.
    10. Horvath, Julius, 2003. "Optimum currency area theory : A selective review," BOFIT Discussion Papers 15/2003, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    11. Andrew Dickerson & Heather Gibson & Euclid Tsakalotos, 1998. "Business Cycle Correspondence in the European Union," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 49-75, January.
    12. Thomas D. Willett, 2001. "The OCA Approach to Exchange Rate Regimes: A Perspective on Recent Developments," Claremont Colleges Working Papers 2001-04, Claremont Colleges.
    13. H.P. Grãœner & C. Hefeker, 1995. "Domestic pressures and the exchange rate regime: why economically bad decisions are politically popular?," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 48(194), pages 331-350.
    14. Eleni Roussou & Norman Cameron, 2005. "The Impact of the European Economic & Monetary Union on the Stability of the Greek Economy," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1-2), pages 85-98.
    15. Luca Antonio Ricci, 1997. "Un modèle simple de zone monétaire optimale," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 128(2), pages 1-19.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    European Monetary Integration; European Monetary Union; Optimum Currency Areas;

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:915. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.