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Optimum Currency Areas, Real and Nominal Convergence in the European Union

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  • João Sousa Andrade

    () (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal)

  • António Portugal Duarte

    () (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal)

Abstract

It is well known and widely accepted by economists that the characteristics of the European countries that become the Eurozone in 1999 did not match the requirements of an Optimum Currency Area (OCA). The only criteria for membership of the new area were nominal. A strict level of convergence in inflation and interest rates was imposed. In addition to the nominal convergence (monetary), a process of convergence of nominal incomes in the new monetary unit was expected to be generated with the monetary integration. After summarizing the criteria for a successful currency area in the context of the OCA theory, we study the real and nominal convergence process for an older group (11) of countries to establish whether or not these countries form an OCA. We apply the original conditions imposed on ADF tests, together with the Schmidt-Phillips tests, and we estimate fractional differential process to overcome the disadvantages of the traditional tests. We conclude that a process of real divergence and nominal convergence does exist. We think this is a source of genuine imbalance in the European integration process that can destroy the harmonious development of a European Monetary Union.

Suggested Citation

  • João Sousa Andrade & António Portugal Duarte, 2015. "Optimum Currency Areas, Real and Nominal Convergence in the European Union," GEMF Working Papers 2015-03, GEMF, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra.
  • Handle: RePEc:gmf:wpaper:2015-03.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chee-Heong Quah, 2016. "Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone," Economies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(2), pages 1-16, April.
    2. Pedro Miguel Avelino Bação & Sara Cerdeira & António Manuel Portugal Duarte, 2019. "Portugal in the Eurozone: Evolution and Expectations," CeBER Working Papers 2019-07, Centre for Business and Economics Research (CeBER), University of Coimbra.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Monetary integration; Optimum Currency Areas; real and nominal convergence; spectral analysis and total factor productivity.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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