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Les rendements de l'éducation en comparaison internationale

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  • Denis Maguain

Abstract

[fre] Deux méthodes complémentaires permettent d’estimer les rendements économiques privés de l’éducation. La première (Mincer, 1974) estime une équation de salaire avec l’éducation et l’expérience comme variables explicatives. La seconde, dite méthode globale, prend en compte les coûts liés à l’investissement éducatif et calcule le taux d’actualisation qui égalise bénéfices et coûts privés de l’investissement en éducation sur le cycle de vie des individus. Ces méthodes sont également utilisées au niveau agrégé pour estimer les rendements sociaux de l’éducation. Les différences de rendement dépendent du modèle économique et social auquel adhère chaque pays ainsi qu’au cadre institutionnel des différents systèmes éducatifs (modes de sélection et surtout de financement). Ces deux méthodes classent la France parmi les pays industrialisés où l’investissement éducatif est le plus rentable, en particulier pour l’éducation supérieure, au niveau individuel et collectif, avec les États-Unis et le Royaume-Uni et devant les pays scandinaves. [eng] We use two complementary methods to estimate private returns to education. The first (Mincer, 1974) is the earnings-function method, where education and work experience are explanatory variables. The second , called the “‘ full ” method, incorporates the costs of human capital investment and computes the discount rate equating the streams of education benefits and costs over individuals’ life cycles. Both methods are also used at the aggregate level to estimate social returns to education. Differences in returns depend on (1) each country’s economic and social models and (2) the institutional context of education systems (selection and, especially, financing). These methods show that France ranks among the industrialized countries where investment in human capital yields the highest returns, particularly in higher education, in both private and social terms. France shares the lead with the United States and United Kingdom, well ahead of Scandinavian countries.

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  • Denis Maguain, 2007. "Les rendements de l'éducation en comparaison internationale," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 180(4), pages 87-106.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_2007_num_180_4_7673
    DOI: 10.3406/ecop.2007.7673
    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.2007.7673
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