IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Long-run effects of public–private research joint ventures: The case of the Danish Innovation Consortia support scheme

  • Kaiser, Ulrich
  • Kuhn, Johan M.

Subsidized research joint ventures (RJVs) between public research institutions and industry have become increasingly popular in Europe and the US. We study the long-run effects of such a support scheme that has been maintained by the Danish government since 1995. To cope with identification problems we apply nearest neighbor matching and conditional difference-in-difference estimation methods. Our main findings are that (i) program participation effects are instant for annual patent applications and last for three years, (ii) employment effects materialize first after one year and (iii) there are no statistically significant effects on value added or labor productivity. We further show that these overall results are primarily driven by firms that were patent active prior to joining the RJV and that there are no statistically significant effects for large firms. The insignificant results we document for large firms coupled with the fact that these type of firms are over-represented in many support programs, including the one considered here, leads us to suggest a rethinking of support policies that often aim at large firms.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Research Policy.

Volume (Year): 41 (2012)
Issue (Month): 5 ()
Pages: 913-927

in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:41:y:2012:i:5:p:913-927
Contact details of provider: Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Leahy, Dermot & Neary, J Peter, 1995. "Public Policy Towards R&D in Oligopolistic Industries," CEPR Discussion Papers 1243, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Heckman, James J. & Lalonde, Robert J. & Smith, Jeffrey A., 1999. "The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 31, pages 1865-2097 Elsevier.
  3. Girma, Sourafel & Gorg, Holger & Strobl, Eric, 2007. "The effect of government grants on plant level productivity," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 439-444, March.
  4. Hall, Bronwyn H & Griliches, Zvi & Hausman, Jerry A, 1986. "Patents and R and D: Is There a Lag?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(2), pages 265-83, June.
  5. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias, 2002. "Alternative approaches to evaluation in empirical microeconomics," CeMMAP working papers CWP10/02, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  6. Huggins, Robert, 2001. "Inter-firm network policies and firm performance: evaluating the impact of initiatives in the United Kingdom," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 443-458, March.
  7. Bruce Kogut, 1991. "Joint Ventures and the Option to Expand and Acquire," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(1), pages 19-33, January.
  8. Hagedoorn, John, 2002. "Inter-firm R&D partnerships: an overview of major trends and patterns since 1960," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 477-492, May.
  9. Rosenberg, Nathan & Nelson, Richard R., 1994. "American universities and technical advance in industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 323-348, May.
  10. repec:oup:restud:v:64:y:1997:i:4:p:605-54 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Archibald, Robert B. & Finifter, David H., 2003. "Evaluating the NASA small business innovation research program: preliminary evidence of a trade-off between commercialization and basic research," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 605-619, April.
  12. Yannis Caloghirou & Stavros Ioannides & Nicholas S. Vonortas, 2003. "Research Joint Ventures," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 541-570, 09.
  13. Marco Caliendo & Sabine Kopeinig, 2008. "Some Practical Guidance For The Implementation Of Propensity Score Matching," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 31-72, 02.
  14. Yannis Caloghirou & Nicholas S Vonortas & Stavros Ioannides, 2002. "Science and technology policies towards research joint ventures," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(2), pages 82-94, April.
  15. Bayona-Sáez, Cristina & García-Marco, Teresa, 2010. "Assessing the effectiveness of the Eureka Program," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 1375-1386, December.
  16. Bronwyn H. Hall & Zvi Griliches & Jerry A. Hausman, 1984. "Patents and R&D: Is There A Lag?," NBER Working Papers 1454, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. repec:oup:qjecon:v:122:y:2007:i:2:p:647-691 is not listed on IDEAS
  18. James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1017-1098, September.
  19. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
  20. Mullahy, John, 1986. "Specification and testing of some modified count data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 341-365, December.
  21. Klette, T.J. & Moen, J., 1998. "From Growth Theory to Technology Policy -Coordination Problems in Theory and Practice," Papers 20/98, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
  22. Bruno Cassiman & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2002. "R&D Cooperation and Spillovers: Some Empirical Evidence from Belgium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1169-1184, September.
  23. Ralph Siebert, 1996. "The Impact of Research Joint Ventures on Firm Performance: An Empirical Assessment," CIG Working Papers FS IV 96-03, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  24. Nicholas S Vonortas, 2000. "Technology policy in the United States and the European Union: Shifting orientation towards technology users," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 27(2), pages 97-108, April.
  25. Roberto Hern·n & Pedro L. MarÌn & Georges Siotis, 2003. "An empirical evaluation of the determinants of Research Joint Venture Formation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(1), pages 75-89, 03.
  26. Jeffrey Smith, 2000. "A Critical Survey of Empirical Methods for Evaluating Active Labor Market Policies," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 136(III), pages 247-268, September.
  27. Branstetter, Lee & Sakakibara, Mariko, 1998. "Japanese Research Consortia: A Microeconometric Analysis of Industrial Policy," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 207-33, June.
  28. Fritsch, M. & Lukas, R., 1998. "Who Cooperates on R & D ?," Papers 98/12, Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  29. Blundell, Richard & Griffith, Rachel & Van Reenen, John, 1995. "Dynamic Count Data Models of Technological Innovation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(429), pages 333-44, March.
  30. Ejsing, Ann-Kathrine & Kaiser, Ulrich & Kongsted, Hans Christian, 2011. "Unraveling the Role of Public Researcher Mobility for Industrial Innovation," IZA Discussion Papers 5691, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  31. Albert Link, 1998. "The US Display Consortium: Analysis of a Public/Private Partnership," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 35-50.
  32. Katsoulacos, Yannis & Ulph, David, 1998. "Endogenous Spillovers and the Performance of Research Joint Ventures," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 333-57, September.
  33. Almus, Matthias & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2003. "The Effects of Public R&D Subsidies on Firms' Innovation Activities: The Case of Eastern Germany," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 21(2), pages 226-36, April.
  34. Lee G. Branstetter & Mariko Sakakibara, 2002. "When Do Research Consortia Work Well and Why? Evidence from Japanese Panel Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 143-159, March.
  35. Bettina Peters, 2005. "Persistence of Innovation: Stylised Facts and Panel Data Evidence," Development and Comp Systems 0511021, EconWPA.
  36. George, Gerard & Zahra, Shaker A. & Wood, D. Jr., 2002. "The effects of business-university alliances on innovative output and financial performance: a study of publicly traded biotechnology companies," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 577-609, October.
  37. Aminata SISSOKO, 2011. "R&D Subsidies And Firm-Level Productivity: Evidence From France," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2011002, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), revised 24 Oct 2013.
  38. Edwin Leuven & Barbara Sianesi, 2003. "PSMATCH2: Stata module to perform full Mahalanobis and propensity score matching, common support graphing, and covariate imbalance testing," Statistical Software Components S432001, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 19 Jan 2015.
  39. Grimaldi, Rosa & Kenney, Martin & Siegel, Donald S. & Wright, Mike, 2011. "30 years after Bayh-Dole: Reassessing academic entrepreneurship," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1045-1057, October.
  40. Lars-Hendrik Röller & Ralph Siebert & Mihkel M. Tombak, 2007. "Why Firms Form (or do not Form) RJVS," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(522), pages 1122-1144, 07.
  41. Spence, Michael, 1984. "Cost Reduction, Competition, and Industry Performance," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 101-21, January.
  42. Darmot Leahy & J. Peter Neary, 1997. "Public Policy Towards R & D in Oligopolistic Industry," Politická ekonomie, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 1997(5), pages 683-698.
  43. repec:oup:restud:v:66:y:1999:i:3:p:529-54 is not listed on IDEAS
  44. Kamien, Morton I. & Zang, Israel, 2000. "Meet me halfway: research joint ventures and absorptive capacity," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 995-1012, October.
  45. Laredo, Philippe, 1998. "The networks promoted by the framework programme and the questions they raise about its formulation and implementation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 589-598, September.
  46. Suzumura, Kotaro, 1992. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in an Oligopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1307-20, December.
  47. Benfratello, Luigi & Sembenelli, Alessandro, 2002. "Research joint ventures and firm level performance," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 493-507, May.
  48. Tether, Bruce S., 2002. "Who co-operates for innovation, and why: An empirical analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 947-967, August.
  49. Michael L. Katz, 1986. "An Analysis of Cooperative Research and Development," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(4), pages 527-543, Winter.
  50. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 783-832.
  51. Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Frank Windmeijer, 1999. "Individual effects and dynamics in count data models," IFS Working Papers W99/03, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  52. Mansfield, Edwin, 1985. "How Rapidly Does New Industrial Technology Leak Out?," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(2), pages 217-23, December.
  53. Peterson, John, 1993. "Assessing the performance of European collaborative R&D policy: The case of Eureka," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 243-264, June.
  54. Masao Nakamura & Yannis Caloghirou & George Hondroyiannis & Nicholas S. Vonortas, 2003. "The performance of research partnerships," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(2-3), pages 85-99.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:41:y:2012:i:5:p:913-927. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.