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Grid code reinforcements for deeper renewable generation in insular energy systems


  • Rodrigues, E.M.G.
  • Osório, G.J.
  • Godina, R.
  • Bizuayehu, A.W.
  • Lujano-Rojas, J.M.
  • Catalão, J.P.S.


Introduction of renewable energy sources (RES) in insular areas is growing on different islands of various regions in the world and the large-scale deployment of renewables in island power systems is appealing to local attention of grid operators as a method to decrease fossil fuel consumption. Planning a grid based on renewable power plants (RPP) presents serious challenges to the normal operation of a power system, precisely on voltage and frequency stability. Despite of its inherent problems, there is a consensus that in near future the RES could supply most of local needs without depending exclusively on fossil fuels. In previous grid code compliance, wind turbines did not required services to support grid operation. Thus, in order to shift to large-scale integration of renewables, the insular grid code ought to incorporate a new set of requirements with the intention of regulating the inclusion of these services. Hence, this paper discusses grid code requirements for large-scale integration of renewables in an island context, as a new contribution to earlier studies. The current trends on grid code formulation, towards an improved integration of distributed renewable resources in island power systems, are addressed. The paper also discusses advanced grid code requirement concepts such as virtual wind inertia and synthetic inertia for improving regulation capability of wind farms and the application of energy storage systems (EES) for enhancing renewable generation integration. Finally, a comparative analysis of insular grid code compliance to these requirements is presented in the European context.

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  • Rodrigues, E.M.G. & Osório, G.J. & Godina, R. & Bizuayehu, A.W. & Lujano-Rojas, J.M. & Catalão, J.P.S., 2016. "Grid code reinforcements for deeper renewable generation in insular energy systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 163-177.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:53:y:2016:i:c:p:163-177
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.08.047

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Robles, Eider & Haro-Larrode, Marta & Santos-Mugica, Maider & Etxegarai, Agurtzane & Tedeschi, Elisabetta, 2019. "Comparative analysis of European grid codes relevant to offshore renewable energy installations," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 171-185.
    2. Etxegarai, Agurtzane & Eguia, Pablo & Torres, Esther & Buigues, Garikoitz & Iturregi, Araitz, 2017. "Current procedures and practices on grid code compliance verification of renewable power generation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 191-202.
    3. Carlos A. Platero & José A. Sánchez & Christophe Nicolet & Philippe Allenbach, 2019. "Hydropower Plants Frequency Regulation Depending on Upper Reservoir Water Level," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(9), pages 1-1, April.
    4. Hirase, Yuko & Abe, Kensho & Sugimoto, Kazushige & Sakimoto, Kenichi & Bevrani, Hassan & Ise, Toshifumi, 2018. "A novel control approach for virtual synchronous generators to suppress frequency and voltage fluctuations in microgrids," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 210(C), pages 699-710.
    5. Serban, Ioan, 2018. "A control strategy for microgrids: Seamless transfer based on a leading inverter with supercapacitor energy storage system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 221(C), pages 490-507.
    6. Yang, Chao & Yao, Wei & Fang, Jiakun & Ai, Xiaomeng & Chen, Zhe & Wen, Jinyu & He, Haibo, 2019. "Dynamic event-triggered robust secondary frequency control for islanded AC microgrid," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 242(C), pages 821-836.
    7. Rodrigues, E.M.G. & Godina, R. & Catalão, J.P.S., 2017. "Modelling electrochemical energy storage devices in insular power network applications supported on real data," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 188(C), pages 315-329.
    8. Nubia Ilia Ponce de León Puig & Leonardo Acho & José Rodellar, 2018. "Design and Experimental Implementation of a Hysteresis Algorithm to Optimize the Maximum Power Point Extracted from a Photovoltaic System," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(7), pages 1-1, July.
    9. Morsy Nour & José Pablo Chaves-Ávila & Gaber Magdy & Álvaro Sánchez-Miralles, 2020. "Review of Positive and Negative Impacts of Electric Vehicles Charging on Electric Power Systems," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(18), pages 1-1, September.
    10. Loudiyi, Khalid & Berrada, Asmae & Svendsen, Harald G. & Mentesidi, Konstantina, 2018. "Grid code status for wind farms interconnection in Northern Africa and Spain: Descriptions and recommendations for Northern Africa," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 2584-2598.
    11. Papadopoulos, Agis M., 2020. "Renewable energies and storage in small insular systems: Potential, perspectives and a case study," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 103-114.
    12. José Ignacio Sarasúa & Guillermo Martínez-Lucas & Carlos A. Platero & José Ángel Sánchez-Fernández, 2018. "Dual Frequency Regulation in Pumping Mode in a Wind–Hydro Isolated System," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(11), pages 1-1, October.
    13. Dreidy, Mohammad & Mokhlis, H. & Mekhilef, Saad, 2017. "Inertia response and frequency control techniques for renewable energy sources: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 144-155.
    14. Paris A. Fokaides & Christiana Panteli & Andri Panayidou, 2020. "How Are the Smart Readiness Indicators Expected to Affect the Energy Performance of Buildings: First Evidence and Perspectives," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(22), pages 1-1, November.


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