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Connection requirements for wind farms: A survey on technical requierements and regulation

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  • de Alegría, Iñigo Martinez
  • Andreu, Jon
  • Martín, José Luis
  • Ibañez, Pedro
  • Villate, José Luis
  • Camblong, Haritza

Abstract

The increase of the wind power penetration in the electrical grids of Denmark, Germany, Spain and other countries and regions is challenging the stability of the system. The subject of this paper is to review the main problems of the connection of wind farms to the grid and how the grid codes must be adapted in order to integrate wind power generation capacity without affecting the quality and stability of the grid. This paper also summarizes the grid codes that have already been modified to incorporate high levels of wind power.

Suggested Citation

  • de Alegría, Iñigo Martinez & Andreu, Jon & Martín, José Luis & Ibañez, Pedro & Villate, José Luis & Camblong, Haritza, 2007. "Connection requirements for wind farms: A survey on technical requierements and regulation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 11(8), pages 1858-1872, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:11:y:2007:i:8:p:1858-1872
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    Cited by:

    1. Robles, Eider & Haro-Larrode, Marta & Santos-Mugica, Maider & Etxegarai, Agurtzane & Tedeschi, Elisabetta, 2019. "Comparative analysis of European grid codes relevant to offshore renewable energy installations," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 171-185.
    2. Purvins, Arturs & Zubaryeva, Alyona & Llorente, Maria & Tzimas, Evangelos & Mercier, Arnaud, 2011. "Challenges and options for a large wind power uptake by the European electricity system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(5), pages 1461-1469, May.
    3. de Alegría, Iñigo Martínez & Martín, Jose Luis & Kortabarria, Iñigo & Andreu, Jon & Ereño, Pedro Ibañez, 2009. "Transmission alternatives for offshore electrical power," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 1027-1038, June.
    4. Ghasemi, Hosein & Gharehpetian, G.B. & Nabavi-Niaki, Seyed Ali & Aghaei, Jamshid, 2013. "Overview of subsynchronous resonance analysis and control in wind turbines," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 234-243.
    5. Mohseni, Mansour & Islam, Syed M., 2012. "Review of international grid codes for wind power integration: Diversity, technology and a case for global standard," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 3876-3890.
    6. Slee, Bill, 2015. "Is there a case for community-based equity participation in Scottish on-shore wind energy production? Gaps in evidence and research needs," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 540-549.
    7. Sandano, Roberto & Farrell, Michael & Basu, Malabika, 2017. "Enhanced master/slave control strategy enabling grid support services and offshore wind power dispatch in a multi-terminal VSC HVDC transmission system," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 1580-1588.
    8. Hafiz, Faizal & Abdennour, Adel, 2015. "Optimal use of kinetic energy for the inertial support from variable speed wind turbines," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 629-643.
    9. Pillai, Jayakrishnan R. & Heussen, Kai & Østergaard, Poul Alberg, 2011. "Comparative analysis of hourly and dynamic power balancing models for validating future energy scenarios," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 3233-3243.
    10. Loudiyi, Khalid & Berrada, Asmae & Svendsen, Harald G. & Mentesidi, Konstantina, 2018. "Grid code status for wind farms interconnection in Northern Africa and Spain: Descriptions and recommendations for Northern Africa," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 2584-2598.
    11. Moghadasi, Amirhasan & Sarwat, Arif & Guerrero, Josep M., 2016. "A comprehensive review of low-voltage-ride-through methods for fixed-speed wind power generators," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 823-839.
    12. Eltigani, Dalia & Masri, Syafrudin, 2015. "Challenges of integrating renewable energy sources to smart grids: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 770-780.
    13. Fritzsche, Kerstin & Zejli, Driss & Tänzler, Dennis, 2011. "The relevance of global energy governance for Arab countries: The case of Morocco," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 4497-4506, August.
    14. Rodrigues, E.M.G. & Osório, G.J. & Godina, R. & Bizuayehu, A.W. & Lujano-Rojas, J.M. & Catalão, J.P.S., 2016. "Grid code reinforcements for deeper renewable generation in insular energy systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 163-177.
    15. Hafiz, Faizal & Abdennour, Adel, 2016. "An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inertia controller for variable-speed wind turbines," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 136-146.
    16. Tascikaraoglu, A. & Uzunoglu, M. & Vural, B. & Erdinc, O., 2011. "Power quality assessment of wind turbines and comparison with conventional legal regulations: A case study in Turkey," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(5), pages 1864-1872, May.
    17. Zhang, Sufang & Li, Xingmei, 2012. "Large scale wind power integration in China: Analysis from a policy perspective," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 1110-1115.

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