IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/rensus/v81y2018ip2p2584-2598.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Grid code status for wind farms interconnection in Northern Africa and Spain: Descriptions and recommendations for Northern Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Loudiyi, Khalid
  • Berrada, Asmae
  • Svendsen, Harald G.
  • Mentesidi, Konstantina

Abstract

Electricity production from renewable energy sources is increasing as costs are going down and concerns of climate change are driving political targets to shift away from fossil fuels. The fast expansion of renewable energy into the electric grid, from being negligible to becoming important for system stability, has implications for grid planning and operation. In this situation, grid operators need to ensure that the grid continues to operate in a safe, secure and economic way. To achieve this, grid codes have been introduced as common rules that regulate these responsibilities; and define standardized and transparent requirements for any facility connected to the grid. This paper gives a review of the status of grid codes in Northern Africa and Europe. It describes technical grid connection requirements particularly relevant for renewable energy integration with a focus on wind energy in general and more in-depth for Spain, Morocco and Egypt. Challenges regarding grid code standardisation and grid code compliance of renewable energy are addressed, and recommendations for further development of grid codes in North Africa are made, building on experiences from Europe.

Suggested Citation

  • Loudiyi, Khalid & Berrada, Asmae & Svendsen, Harald G. & Mentesidi, Konstantina, 2018. "Grid code status for wind farms interconnection in Northern Africa and Spain: Descriptions and recommendations for Northern Africa," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 2584-2598.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:81:y:2018:i:p2:p:2584-2598
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.065
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032117309917
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Rodrigues, E.M.G. & Osório, G.J. & Godina, R. & Bizuayehu, A.W. & Lujano-Rojas, J.M. & Catalão, J.P.S., 2016. "Grid code reinforcements for deeper renewable generation in insular energy systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 163-177.
    2. de Alegría, Iñigo Martinez & Andreu, Jon & Martín, José Luis & Ibañez, Pedro & Villate, José Luis & Camblong, Haritza, 2007. "Connection requirements for wind farms: A survey on technical requierements and regulation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 11(8), pages 1858-1872, October.
    3. Díaz-González, Francisco & Hau, Melanie & Sumper, Andreas & Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol, 2014. "Participation of wind power plants in system frequency control: Review of grid code requirements and control methods," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 551-564.
    4. Mohseni, Mansour & Islam, Syed M., 2012. "Review of international grid codes for wind power integration: Diversity, technology and a case for global standard," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 3876-3890.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:81:y:2018:i:p2:p:2584-2598. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600126/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.