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Participation of wind power plants in system frequency control: Review of grid code requirements and control methods

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  • Díaz-González, Francisco
  • Hau, Melanie
  • Sumper, Andreas
  • Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

Abstract

Active power reserves are needed for the proper operation of an electrical system. These reserves are continuously regulated in order to match the generation and consumption in the system and thus, to maintain a constant electrical frequency. They are usually provided by synchronized conventional generating units such as hydraulic or thermal power plants. With the progressive displacement of these generating plants by non-synchronized renewable-based power plants (e.g. wind and solar) the net level of synchronous power reserves in the system becomes reduced. Therefore, wind power plants are required, according to some European Grid Codes, to also provide power reserves like conventional generating units do. This paper focuses not only on the review of the requirements set by Grid Codes, but also on control methods of wind turbines for their participation in primary frequency control and synthetic inertia.

Suggested Citation

  • Díaz-González, Francisco & Hau, Melanie & Sumper, Andreas & Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol, 2014. "Participation of wind power plants in system frequency control: Review of grid code requirements and control methods," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 551-564.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:34:y:2014:i:c:p:551-564
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.03.040
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    5. Cheng, Yi & Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul & Azizi, Sadegh & Ding, Lei & Terzija, Vladimir, 2020. "Smart frequency control in low inertia energy systems based on frequency response techniques: A review," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 279(C).
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    7. Li, Pengfei & Hu, Weihao & Hu, Rui & Huang, Qi & Yao, Jun & Chen, Zhe, 2019. "Strategy for wind power plant contribution to frequency control under variable wind speed," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 1226-1236.
    8. Bullich-Massagué, Eduard & Díaz-González, Francisco & Aragüés-Peñalba, Mònica & Girbau-Llistuella, Francesc & Olivella-Rosell, Pol & Sumper, Andreas, 2018. "Microgrid clustering architectures," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 212(C), pages 340-361.
    9. Fernández-Guillamón, Ana & Gómez-Lázaro, Emilio & Muljadi, Eduard & Molina-García, Ángel, 2019. "Power systems with high renewable energy sources: A review of inertia and frequency control strategies over time," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    10. Attya, A.B. & Dominguez-Garcia, J.L. & Anaya-Lara, O., 2018. "A review on frequency support provision by wind power plants: Current and future challenges," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 2071-2087.
    11. Akram, Umer & Nadarajah, Mithulananthan & Shah, Rakibuzzaman & Milano, Federico, 2020. "A review on rapid responsive energy storage technologies for frequency regulation in modern power systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 120(C).
    12. Li, Yong & He, Li & Liu, Fang & Tan, Yi & Cao, Yijia & Luo, Longfu & Shahidehpour, Mohammod, 2018. "A dynamic coordinated control strategy of WTG-ES combined system for short-term frequency support," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 1-11.
    13. Liu, Jizhen & Yao, Qi & Hu, Yang, 2019. "Model predictive control for load frequency of hybrid power system with wind power and thermal power," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 555-565.
    14. Loudiyi, Khalid & Berrada, Asmae & Svendsen, Harald G. & Mentesidi, Konstantina, 2018. "Grid code status for wind farms interconnection in Northern Africa and Spain: Descriptions and recommendations for Northern Africa," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 2584-2598.
    15. Hansen, Anca D. & Altin, Müfit & Iov, Florin, 2016. "Provision of enhanced ancillary services from wind power plants – Examples and challenges," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 8-18.
    16. Mansouri, M.Mahdi & Nayeripour, Majid & Negnevitsky, Michael, 2016. "Internal electrical protection of wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 840-855.
    17. Kheshti, Mostafa & Ding, Lei & Nayeripour, Majid & Wang, Xiaowei & Terzija, Vladimir, 2019. "Active power support of wind turbines for grid frequency events using a reliable power reference scheme," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 1241-1254.
    18. Li, Jianwei & Xiong, Rui & Yang, Qingqing & Liang, Fei & Zhang, Min & Yuan, Weijia, 2017. "Design/test of a hybrid energy storage system for primary frequency control using a dynamic droop method in an isolated microgrid power system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 201(C), pages 257-269.
    19. Borne, Olivier & Korte, Klaas & Perez, Yannick & Petit, Marc & Purkus, Alexandra, 2018. "Barriers to entry in frequency-regulation services markets: Review of the status quo and options for improvements," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 605-614.
    20. Rodrigues, E.M.G. & Osório, G.J. & Godina, R. & Bizuayehu, A.W. & Lujano-Rojas, J.M. & Catalão, J.P.S., 2016. "Grid code reinforcements for deeper renewable generation in insular energy systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 163-177.
    21. Dreidy, Mohammad & Mokhlis, H. & Mekhilef, Saad, 2017. "Inertia response and frequency control techniques for renewable energy sources: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 144-155.
    22. Tareen, Wajahat Ullah & Mekhilef, Saad & Seyedmahmoudian, Mehdi & Horan, Ben, 2017. "Active power filter (APF) for mitigation of power quality issues in grid integration of wind and photovoltaic energy conversion system," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 635-655.
    23. Zappa, William & Junginger, Martin & van den Broek, Machteld, 2019. "Is a 100% renewable European power system feasible by 2050?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 233, pages 1027-1050.
    24. Lobato, E. & Doenges, K. & Egido, I. & Sigrist, L., 2020. "Limits to wind aggregation: Empirical assessment in the Spanish electricity system," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(P1), pages 1321-1330.

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