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Inertia response and frequency control techniques for renewable energy sources: A review

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  • Dreidy, Mohammad
  • Mokhlis, H.
  • Mekhilef, Saad

Abstract

Preservation of the environment has become the main motivation to integrate more renewable energy sources (RESs) in electrical networks. However, several technical issues are prevalent at high level RES penetration. The most important technical issue is the difficulty in achieving the frequency stability of these new systems, as they contain less generation units that provide reserve power. Moreover, new power systems have small inertia constant due to the decoupling of the RESs from the AC grid using power converters. Therefore, the RESs in normal operation cannot participate with other conventional generation sources in frequency regulation. This paper reviews several inertia and frequency control techniques proposed for variable speed wind turbines and solar PV generators. Generally, the inertia and frequency regulation techniques were divided into two main groups. The first group includes the deloading technique, which allow the RESs to keep a certain amount of reserve power, while the second group includes inertia emulation, fast power reserve, and droop techniques, which is used to release the RESs reserve power at under frequency events.

Suggested Citation

  • Dreidy, Mohammad & Mokhlis, H. & Mekhilef, Saad, 2017. "Inertia response and frequency control techniques for renewable energy sources: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 144-155.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:69:y:2017:i:c:p:144-155
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.170
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    9. Hirase, Yuko & Abe, Kensho & Sugimoto, Kazushige & Sakimoto, Kenichi & Bevrani, Hassan & Ise, Toshifumi, 2018. "A novel control approach for virtual synchronous generators to suppress frequency and voltage fluctuations in microgrids," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 210(C), pages 699-710.
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    12. Kanwal, S. & Khan, B. & Ali, S.M. & Mehmood, C.A., 2018. "Gaussian process regression based inertia emulation and reserve estimation for grid interfaced photovoltaic system," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 865-875.
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    14. Akram, Umer & Nadarajah, Mithulananthan & Shah, Rakibuzzaman & Milano, Federico, 2020. "A review on rapid responsive energy storage technologies for frequency regulation in modern power systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 120(C).
    15. Xiao Qi & Yan Bai & Huanhuan Luo & Yiqing Zhang & Guiping Zhou & Zhonghua Wei, 2018. "Fully-distributed Load Frequency Control Strategy in an Islanded Microgrid Considering Plug-In Electric Vehicles," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(6), pages 1-18, June.
    16. Sijia Tu & Bingda Zhang & Xianglong Jin, 2019. "Research on DFIG-ES System to Enhance the Fast-Frequency Response Capability of Wind Farms," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(18), pages 1-20, September.
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    18. Ford, Rebecca & Hardy, Jeffrey, 2020. "Are we seeing clearly? The need for aligned vision and supporting strategies to deliver net-zero electricity systems," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C).
    19. Vasudevan, Krishnakumar R. & Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K. & Venugopal, Gomathi & Ekanayake, J.B. & Tiong, S.K., 2021. "Variable speed pumped hydro storage: A review of converters, controls and energy management strategies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
    20. Ratnam, Kamala Sarojini & Palanisamy, K. & Yang, Guangya, 2020. "Future low-inertia power systems: Requirements, issues, and solutions - A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 124(C).
    21. Zappa, William & Junginger, Martin & van den Broek, Machteld, 2019. "Is a 100% renewable European power system feasible by 2050?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 233, pages 1027-1050.
    22. Venkaiah, P. & Sarkar, Bikash K., 2020. "Hydraulically actuated horizontal axis wind turbine pitch control by model free adaptive controller," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(P1), pages 55-68.

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