IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jeners/v13y2020i18p4675-d410617.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Review of Positive and Negative Impacts of Electric Vehicles Charging on Electric Power Systems

Author

Listed:
  • Morsy Nour

    () (Institute for Research in Technology (IIT), ICAI School of Engineering, Comillas Pontifical University, 28015 Madrid, Spain
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Energy Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan 81528, Egypt)

  • José Pablo Chaves-Ávila

    () (Institute for Research in Technology (IIT), ICAI School of Engineering, Comillas Pontifical University, 28015 Madrid, Spain)

  • Gaber Magdy

    () (Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Energy Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan 81528, Egypt)

  • Álvaro Sánchez-Miralles

    () (Institute for Research in Technology (IIT), ICAI School of Engineering, Comillas Pontifical University, 28015 Madrid, Spain)

Abstract

There is a continuous and fast increase in electric vehicles (EVs) adoption in many countries due to the reduction of EVs prices, governments’ incentives and subsidies on EVs, the need for energy independence, and environmental issues. It is expected that EVs will dominate the private cars market in the coming years. These EVs charge their batteries from the power grid and may cause severe effects if not managed properly. On the other hand, they can provide many benefits to the power grid and get revenues for EV owners if managed properly. The main contribution of the article is to provide a review of potential negative impacts of EVs charging on electric power systems mainly due to uncontrolled charging and how through controlled charging and discharging those impacts can be reduced and become even positive impacts. The impacts of uncontrolled EVs charging on the increase of peak demand, voltage deviation from the acceptable limits, phase unbalance due to the single-phase chargers, harmonics distortion, overloading of the power system equipment, and increase of power losses are presented. Furthermore, a review of the positive impacts of controlled EVs charging and discharging, and the electrical services that it can provide like frequency regulation, voltage regulation and reactive power compensation, congestion management, and improving power quality are presented. Moreover, a few promising research topics that need more investigation in future research are briefly discussed. Furthermore, the concepts and general background of EVs, EVs market, EV charging technology, the charging methods are presented.

Suggested Citation

  • Morsy Nour & José Pablo Chaves-Ávila & Gaber Magdy & Álvaro Sánchez-Miralles, 2020. "Review of Positive and Negative Impacts of Electric Vehicles Charging on Electric Power Systems," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(18), pages 1-34, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:13:y:2020:i:18:p:4675-:d:410617
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/18/4675/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/18/4675/
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Tan, Kang Miao & Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K. & Yong, Jia Ying, 2016. "Integration of electric vehicles in smart grid: A review on vehicle to grid technologies and optimization techniques," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 720-732.
    2. Reza Ahmadi Kordkheili & Seyyed Ali Pourmousavi & Mehdi Savaghebi & Josep M. Guerrero & Mohammad Hashem Nehrir, 2016. "Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(1), pages 1-17, January.
    3. Samy Faddel & Ali T. Al-Awami & Osama A. Mohammed, 2018. "Charge Control and Operation of Electric Vehicles in Power Grids: A Review," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(4), pages 1-21, March.
    4. Fuad Un-Noor & Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban & Lucian Mihet-Popa & Mohammad Nurunnabi Mollah & Eklas Hossain, 2017. "A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV) Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(8), pages 1-84, August.
    5. Lund, Henrik & Kempton, Willett, 2008. "Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 3578-3587, September.
    6. García-Villalobos, J. & Zamora, I. & Knezović, K. & Marinelli, M., 2016. "Multi-objective optimization control of plug-in electric vehicles in low voltage distribution networks," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 180(C), pages 155-168.
    7. Gass, V. & Schmidt, J. & Schmid, E., 2014. "Analysis of alternative policy instruments to promote electric vehicles in Austria," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 96-101.
    8. Pavić, Ivan & Capuder, Tomislav & Kuzle, Igor, 2015. "Value of flexible electric vehicles in providing spinning reserve services," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 60-74.
    9. Colmenar-Santos, Antonio & Linares-Mena, Ana-Rosa & Borge-Diez, David & Quinto-Alemany, Carlos-Domingo, 2017. "Impact assessment of electric vehicles on islands grids: A case study for Tenerife (Spain)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 385-396.
    10. Crozier, Constance & Morstyn, Thomas & McCulloch, Malcolm, 2020. "The opportunity for smart charging to mitigate the impact of electric vehicles on transmission and distribution systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 268(C).
    11. Gerard, Helena & Rivero Puente, Enrique Israel & Six, Daan, 2018. "Coordination between transmission and distribution system operators in the electricity sector: A conceptual framework," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 40-48.
    12. Staudt, Philipp & Schmidt, Marc & Gärttner, Johannes & Weinhardt, Christof, 2018. "A decentralized approach towards resolving transmission grid congestion in Germany using vehicle-to-grid technology," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 230(C), pages 1435-1446.
    13. Teng, Fei & Aunedi, Marko & Strbac, Goran, 2016. "Benefits of flexibility from smart electrified transportation and heating in the future UK electricity system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 420-431.
    14. Rodrigues, E.M.G. & Osório, G.J. & Godina, R. & Bizuayehu, A.W. & Lujano-Rojas, J.M. & Catalão, J.P.S., 2016. "Grid code reinforcements for deeper renewable generation in insular energy systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 163-177.
    15. Dallinger, David & Gerda, Schubert & Wietschel, Martin, 2013. "Integration of intermittent renewable power supply using grid-connected vehicles – A 2030 case study for California and Germany," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 666-682.
    16. Lyon, Thomas P. & Michelin, Mark & Jongejan, Arie & Leahy, Thomas, 2012. "Is “smart charging” policy for electric vehicles worthwhile?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 259-268.
    17. Yang, Shengjie & Yao, Jiangang & Kang, Tong & Zhu, Xiangqian, 2014. "Dynamic operation model of the battery swapping station for EV (electric vehicle) in electricity market," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 544-549.
    18. Sanchari Deb & Kari Tammi & Karuna Kalita & Pinakeshwar Mahanta, 2018. "Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(1), pages 1-25, January.
    19. Zhenshi Wang & Xuezhe Wei & Haifeng Dai, 2015. "Design and Control of a 3 kW Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(1), pages 1-18, December.
    20. Shaukat, N. & Khan, B. & Ali, S.M. & Mehmood, C.A. & Khan, J. & Farid, U. & Majid, M. & Anwar, S.M. & Jawad, M. & Ullah, Z., 2018. "A survey on electric vehicle transportation within smart grid system," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 1329-1349.
    21. Jia, Hongjie & Li, Xiaomeng & Mu, Yunfei & Xu, Chen & Jiang, Yilang & Yu, Xiaodan & Wu, Jianzhong & Dong, Chaoyu, 2018. "Coordinated control for EV aggregators and power plants in frequency regulation considering time-varying delays," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 210(C), pages 1363-1376.
    22. Cabrera-Tobar, Ana & Bullich-Massagué, Eduard & Aragüés-Peñalba, Mònica & Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol, 2016. "Review of advanced grid requirements for the integration of large scale photovoltaic power plants in the transmission system," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 971-987.
    23. repec:gam:jeners:v:9:y:2015:i:1:p:10:d:61222 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Hedegaard, Karsten & Ravn, Hans & Juul, Nina & Meibom, Peter, 2012. "Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 356-368.
    25. repec:gam:jeners:v:9:y:2016:i:1:p:34:d:61858 is not listed on IDEAS
    26. Yang Yang & Mohamed El Baghdadi & Yuanfeng Lan & Yassine Benomar & Joeri Van Mierlo & Omar Hegazy, 2018. "Design Methodology, Modeling, and Comparative Study of Wireless Power Transfer Systems for Electric Vehicles," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(7), pages 1-22, July.
    27. Gaizka Saldaña & Jose Ignacio San Martin & Inmaculada Zamora & Francisco Javier Asensio & Oier Oñederra, 2019. "Electric Vehicle into the Grid: Charging Methodologies Aimed at Providing Ancillary Services Considering Battery Degradation," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(12), pages 1-37, June.
    28. Yang, Zhile & Li, Kang & Foley, Aoife, 2015. "Computational scheduling methods for integrating plug-in electric vehicles with power systems: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 396-416.
    29. Kristoffersen, Trine Krogh & Capion, Karsten & Meibom, Peter, 2011. "Optimal charging of electric drive vehicles in a market environment," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(5), pages 1940-1948, May.
    30. Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, Amin & Pesiridis, Apostolos & Rajoo, Srithar & Martinez-Botas, Ricardo & Esfahanian, Vahid, 2017. "A review of Battery Electric Vehicle technology and readiness levels," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 414-430.
    31. Meng, Jian & Mu, Yunfei & Jia, Hongjie & Wu, Jianzhong & Yu, Xiaodan & Qu, Bo, 2016. "Dynamic frequency response from electric vehicles considering travelling behavior in the Great Britain power system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 966-979.
    32. repec:gam:jeners:v:9:y:2016:i:1:p:-:d:61858 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. Karabasoglu, Orkun & Michalek, Jeremy, 2013. "Influence of driving patterns on life cycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle powertrains," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 445-461.
    34. repec:gam:jeners:v:9:y:2015:i:1:p:-:d:61222 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Nikolaos Milas & Dimitris Mourtzis & Emmanuel Tatakis, 2020. "A Decision-Making Framework for the Smart Charging of Electric Vehicles Considering the Priorities of the Driver," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(22), pages 1-28, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Yong, Jia Ying & Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K. & Tan, Kang Miao & Mithulananthan, N., 2015. "A review on the state-of-the-art technologies of electric vehicle, its impacts and prospects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 365-385.
    2. Verzijlbergh, Remco & Brancucci Martínez-Anido, Carlo & Lukszo, Zofia & de Vries, Laurens, 2014. "Does controlled electric vehicle charging substitute cross-border transmission capacity?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 169-180.
    3. Kang Miao Tan & Vigna K. Ramachandaramurthy & Jia Ying Yong & Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban & Lucian Mihet-Popa & Frede Blaabjerg, 2017. "Minimization of Load Variance in Power Grids—Investigation on Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Scheduling," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(11), pages 1-21, November.
    4. Hanemann, Philipp & Behnert, Marika & Bruckner, Thomas, 2017. "Effects of electric vehicle charging strategies on the German power system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 203(C), pages 608-622.
    5. Gaizka Saldaña & Jose Ignacio San Martin & Inmaculada Zamora & Francisco Javier Asensio & Oier Oñederra, 2019. "Electric Vehicle into the Grid: Charging Methodologies Aimed at Providing Ancillary Services Considering Battery Degradation," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(12), pages 1-37, June.
    6. Paterakis, Nikolaos G. & Gibescu, Madeleine, 2016. "A methodology to generate power profiles of electric vehicle parking lots under different operational strategies," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 173(C), pages 111-123.
    7. Jean-Michel Clairand & Paulo Guerra-Terán & Xavier Serrano-Guerrero & Mario González-Rodríguez & Guillermo Escrivá-Escrivá, 2019. "Electric Vehicles for Public Transportation in Power Systems: A Review of Methodologies," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(16), pages 1-22, August.
    8. Szinai, Julia K. & Sheppard, Colin J.R. & Abhyankar, Nikit & Gopal, Anand R., 2020. "Reduced grid operating costs and renewable energy curtailment with electric vehicle charge management," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    9. Schill, Wolf-Peter & Gerbaulet, Clemens, 2015. "Power System Impacts of Electric Vehicles in Germany: Charging with Coal or Renewables," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 185-196.
    10. Ensslen, Axel & Ringler, Philipp & Dörr, Lasse & Jochem, Patrick & Zimmermann, Florian & Fichtner, Wolf, 2018. "Incentivizing smart charging: Modeling charging tariffs for electric vehicles in German and French electricity markets," MPRA Paper 91543, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Feb 2018.
    11. Shaukat, N. & Khan, B. & Ali, S.M. & Mehmood, C.A. & Khan, J. & Farid, U. & Majid, M. & Anwar, S.M. & Jawad, M. & Ullah, Z., 2018. "A survey on electric vehicle transportation within smart grid system," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 1329-1349.
    12. Tu, Ran & Gai, Yijun (Jessie) & Farooq, Bilal & Posen, Daniel & Hatzopoulou, Marianne, 2020. "Electric vehicle charging optimization to minimize marginal greenhouse gas emissions from power generation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 277(C).
    13. Teng, Fei & Mu, Yunfei & Jia, Hongjie & Wu, Jianzhong & Zeng, Pingliang & Strbac, Goran, 2017. "Challenges on primary frequency control and potential solution from EVs in the future GB electricity system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 194(C), pages 353-362.
    14. Weis, Allison & Jaramillo, Paulina & Michalek, Jeremy, 2014. "Estimating the potential of controlled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging to reduce operational and capacity expansion costs for electric power systems with high wind penetration," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 190-204.
    15. Hoogvliet, T.W. & Litjens, G.B.M.A. & van Sark, W.G.J.H.M., 2017. "Provision of regulating- and reserve power by electric vehicle owners in the Dutch market," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 190(C), pages 1008-1019.
    16. Rangaraju, Surendraprabu & De Vroey, Laurent & Messagie, Maarten & Mertens, Jan & Van Mierlo, Joeri, 2015. "Impacts of electricity mix, charging profile, and driving behavior on the emissions performance of battery electric vehicles: A Belgian case study," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 496-505.
    17. Richardson, David B., 2013. "Electric vehicles and the electric grid: A review of modeling approaches, Impacts, and renewable energy integration," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 247-254.
    18. Ji, Zhenya & Huang, Xueliang, 2018. "Plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure deployment of China towards 2020: Policies, methodologies, and challenges," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 710-727.
    19. González, L.G. & Siavichay, E. & Espinoza, J.L., 2019. "Impact of EV fast charging stations on the power distribution network of a Latin American intermediate city," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 309-318.
    20. Hu, Junjie & Morais, Hugo & Sousa, Tiago & Lind, Morten, 2016. "Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 1207-1226.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    electric vehicles; uncontrolled charging; delayed charging; controlled charging; V2G; V2B; V2H; peak shaving; valley filling; congestion management; renewable energy sources;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q47 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy Forecasting
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q49 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Other

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:13:y:2020:i:18:p:4675-:d:410617. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.