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Active integration of electric vehicles into distribution grids: Barriers and frameworks for flexibility services

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  • Gonzalez Venegas, Felipe
  • Petit, Marc
  • Perez, Yannick

Abstract

Distribution system operators face a challenging environment marked by increased decentralization, digitalization, and the decarbonization of transport and heating sectors. In particular, the integration of large numbers of electric vehicles (EVs) will pose challenges for distribution grid operation and planning. However, EVs also open the opportunity to offer flexibility services to different actors in the electricity system using smart charging and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. This work reviewed the scientific literature and key European demonstrator projects on the proactive integration of EVs into distribution grids. The main technical, economic, regulatory, and user-related aspects were analyzed and the associated barriers identified. There is a broad scientific literature on the technical feasibility of EV flexibility provision and coordination schemes, which has as well been proved in demonstrator projects, even though the required technologies for V2G (bidirectional chargers, communication protocols) are not yet widespread. On the other hand, main barriers are economic and institutional, largely due to a lack of regulatory frameworks to value flexibility at distribution level and thus uncertainty on the value of these flexibility services. In particular, this work analyzed four possible value frameworks (grid codes, connection agreements, tariffs and market platforms) to use flexibility at the distribution level, and their implementations with EV fleets in demonstrator projects.

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  • Gonzalez Venegas, Felipe & Petit, Marc & Perez, Yannick, 2021. "Active integration of electric vehicles into distribution grids: Barriers and frameworks for flexibility services," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 145(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:145:y:2021:i:c:s1364032121003488
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2021.111060
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    Cited by:

    1. Ryosuke Kataoka & Kazuhiko Ogimoto & Yumiko Iwafune, 2021. "Marginal Value of Vehicle-to-Grid Ancillary Service in a Power System with Variable Renewable Energy Penetration and Grid Side Flexibility," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(22), pages 1-21, November.
    2. Vincent Barthel & Jonas Schlund & Philipp Landes & Veronika Brandmeier & Marco Pruckner, 2021. "Analyzing the Charging Flexibility Potential of Different Electric Vehicle Fleets Using Real-World Charging Data," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(16), pages 1-16, August.
    3. Ferréol Binot & Trung Dung Le & Marc Petit, 2021. "Characterization and Modeling of LV Cables Considering External Parameters for Distribution Networks," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(23), pages 1-29, November.
    4. Felipe Gonzalez & Marc Petit & Yannick Perez, 2021. "Plug-in behavior of electric vehicles users: Insights from a large-scale trial and impacts for grid integration studies," Post-Print hal-03363782, HAL.

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