IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G

Listed author(s):
  • Lund, Henrik
  • Kempton, Willett
Registered author(s):

    Large-scale sustainable energy systems will be necessary for substantial reduction of CO2. However, large-scale implementation faces two major problems: (1) we must replace oil in the transportation sector, and (2) since today's inexpensive and abundant renewable energy resources have fluctuating output, to increase the fraction of electricity from them, we must learn to maintain a balance between demand and supply. Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) could reduce or eliminate oil for the light vehicle fleet. Adding "vehicle-to-grid" (V2G) technology to EVs can provide storage, matching the time of generation to time of load. Two national energy systems are modelled, one for Denmark, including combined heat and power (CHP) and the other a similarly sized country without CHP (the latter being more typical of other industrialized countries). The model (EnergyPLAN) integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment (wind resource and weather-driven need for heat). Four types of vehicle fleets are modelled, under levels of wind penetration varying from 0% to 100%. EVs were assumed to have high power (10Â kW) connections, which provide important flexibility in time and duration of charging. We find that adding EVs and V2G to these national energy systems allows integration of much higher levels of wind electricity without excess electric production, and also greatly reduces national CO2 emissions.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301-4215(08)00283-8
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 36 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 9 (September)
    Pages: 3578-3587

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:36:y:2008:i:9:p:3578-3587
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as
    in new window


    1. Toke, Dave, 2005. "Explaining wind power planning outcomes:: some findings from a study in England and Wales," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 1527-1539, August.
    2. Lund, Henrik & Hvelplund, Frede & Kass, Ilmars & Dukalskis, Edgars & Blumberga, Dagnija, 1999. "District heating and market economy in Latvia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 549-559.
    3. Lund, Henrik & Hvelplund, Frede & Ingermann, Karl & Kask, Ulo, 2000. "Estonian energy system Proposals for the implementation of a cogeneration strategy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 729-736, August.
    4. Lund, H & Münster, E, 2003. "Modelling of energy systems with a high percentage of CHP and wind power," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 28(14), pages 2179-2193.
    5. Mathiesen, B.V. & Lund, H. & Nørgaard, P., 2008. "Integrated transport and renewable energy systems," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 107-116, June.
    6. Lund, H. & Hvelplund, F. & Nunthavorakarn, S., 2003. "Feasibility of a 1400 MW coal-fired power-plant in Thailand," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 76(1-3), pages 55-64, September.
    7. Duic, Neven & Juretic, Franjo & Zeljko, Mladen & Bogdan, Zeljko, 2005. "Croatia energy planning and Kyoto Protocol," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1003-1010, May.
    8. Henrik Lund, 1999. "A Green Energy Plan for Denmark," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 14(3), pages 431-440, October.
    9. Williams, Brett D & Kurani, Kenneth S, 2007. "Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity†technologies and opportunities," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt34x5p0kn, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    10. Lund, Henrik & Münster, Ebbe, 2006. "Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 426-433, September.
    11. Lund, H. & Siupsinskas, G. & Martinaitis, V., 2005. "Implementation strategy for small CHP-plants in a competitive market: the case of Lithuania," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 214-227, November.
    12. Lund, Henrik, 2007. "Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 912-919.
    13. Lund, Henrik & Østergaard, Poul Alberg, 2000. "Electric grid and heat planning scenarios with centralised and distributed sources of conventional, CHP and wind generation," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 299-312.
    14. Duic, N. & Alves, L. M. & Chen, F. & da Graça Carvalho, M., 2003. "Potential of Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism in transfer of clean energy technologies to Small Island Developing States: case study of Cape Verde," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 83-98, February.
    15. Hvelplund, Frede & Lund, Henrik, 1998. "Rebuilding without restructuring the energy system in east Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 535-546, June.
    16. Mæng, H. & Lund, H. & Hvelplund, F., 1999. "Biogas plants in Denmark: technological and economic developments," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-4), pages 195-206, September.
    17. Kempton, Willett & Kubo, Toru, 2000. "Electric-drive vehicles for peak power in Japan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 9-18, January.
    18. Gross, Robert, 2004. "Technologies and innovation for system change in the UK: status, prospects and system requirements of some leading renewable energy options," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(17), pages 1905-1919, November.
    19. Lund, H. & Münster, E., 2003. "Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 76(1-3), pages 65-74, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:36:y:2008:i:9:p:3578-3587. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.