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Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G

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  • Lund, Henrik
  • Kempton, Willett

Abstract

Large-scale sustainable energy systems will be necessary for substantial reduction of CO2. However, large-scale implementation faces two major problems: (1) we must replace oil in the transportation sector, and (2) since today's inexpensive and abundant renewable energy resources have fluctuating output, to increase the fraction of electricity from them, we must learn to maintain a balance between demand and supply. Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) could reduce or eliminate oil for the light vehicle fleet. Adding "vehicle-to-grid" (V2G) technology to EVs can provide storage, matching the time of generation to time of load. Two national energy systems are modelled, one for Denmark, including combined heat and power (CHP) and the other a similarly sized country without CHP (the latter being more typical of other industrialized countries). The model (EnergyPLAN) integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment (wind resource and weather-driven need for heat). Four types of vehicle fleets are modelled, under levels of wind penetration varying from 0% to 100%. EVs were assumed to have high power (10Â kW) connections, which provide important flexibility in time and duration of charging. We find that adding EVs and V2G to these national energy systems allows integration of much higher levels of wind electricity without excess electric production, and also greatly reduces national CO2 emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Lund, Henrik & Kempton, Willett, 2008. "Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 3578-3587, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:36:y:2008:i:9:p:3578-3587
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lund, Henrik & Hvelplund, Frede & Kass, Ilmars & Dukalskis, Edgars & Blumberga, Dagnija, 1999. "District heating and market economy in Latvia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 549-559.
    2. Duic, Neven & Juretic, Franjo & Zeljko, Mladen & Bogdan, Zeljko, 2005. "Croatia energy planning and Kyoto Protocol," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1003-1010, May.
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    4. Lund, Henrik, 2007. "Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 912-919.
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    6. Toke, Dave, 2005. "Explaining wind power planning outcomes:: some findings from a study in England and Wales," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 1527-1539, August.
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    8. Lund, Henrik & Münster, Ebbe, 2006. "Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 426-433, September.
    9. Duic, N. & Alves, L. M. & Chen, F. & da Graça Carvalho, M., 2003. "Potential of Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism in transfer of clean energy technologies to Small Island Developing States: case study of Cape Verde," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 83-98, February.
    10. Lund, H. & Münster, E., 2003. "Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 76(1-3), pages 65-74, September.
    11. Mathiesen, B.V. & Lund, H. & Nørgaard, P., 2008. "Integrated transport and renewable energy systems," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 107-116, June.
    12. Lund, H. & Hvelplund, F. & Nunthavorakarn, S., 2003. "Feasibility of a 1400 MW coal-fired power-plant in Thailand," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 76(1-3), pages 55-64, September.
    13. Lund, H. & Siupsinskas, G. & Martinaitis, V., 2005. "Implementation strategy for small CHP-plants in a competitive market: the case of Lithuania," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 214-227, November.
    14. Lund, Henrik & Østergaard, Poul Alberg, 2000. "Electric grid and heat planning scenarios with centralised and distributed sources of conventional, CHP and wind generation," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 299-312.
    15. Hvelplund, Frede & Lund, Henrik, 1998. "Rebuilding without restructuring the energy system in east Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 535-546, June.
    16. Kempton, Willett & Kubo, Toru, 2000. "Electric-drive vehicles for peak power in Japan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 9-18, January.
    17. Gross, Robert, 2004. "Technologies and innovation for system change in the UK: status, prospects and system requirements of some leading renewable energy options," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(17), pages 1905-1919, November.
    18. Lund, Henrik & Hvelplund, Frede & Ingermann, Karl & Kask, Ulo, 2000. "Estonian energy system Proposals for the implementation of a cogeneration strategy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 729-736, August.
    19. Henrik Lund, 1999. "A Green Energy Plan for Denmark," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 14(3), pages 431-440, October.
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