IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cdl/itsdav/qt34x5p0kn.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity†technologies and opportunities

Author

Listed:
  • Williams, Brett D
  • Kurani, Kenneth S

Abstract

Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity†is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plugin hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new electric-drive-vehicle and vehicular-distributed-generation model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zeroemission- driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me-enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-enabled vehicles, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the driving-age population are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments—which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today’s internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuelcell zero-sum game and towards the development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. H2FCVs are described as one possible extension of this Me- product platform for the supply of clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature. Finally, the major findings of this study are summarized and directions for future work discussed. Together, the parts of this Mobile Electricity innovation assessment reveal an initially expensive and limited but compelling (and possibly necessary) set of opportunities to help drive H2FCV and other electric-drive-vehicle commercialization. Keywords: Hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicle, Mobile Electricity innovation, Plug-in hybrid, Plug-out hybrid, Vehicle-to-grid power, Vehicular distributed generation, Household market potential, product development, market development.

Suggested Citation

  • Williams, Brett D & Kurani, Kenneth S, 2007. "Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity†technologies and opportunities," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt34x5p0kn, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt34x5p0kn
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/34x5p0kn.pdf;origin=repeccitec
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Farrell, Alexander E. & Keith, David W. & Corbett, James J., 2003. "A strategy for introducing hydrogen into transportation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(13), pages 1357-1367, October.
    2. DeLuchi, Mark A. & Ogden, Joan M., 1993. "Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1m69d7sf, University of California Transportation Center.
    3. Nesbitt, Kevin & Sperling, Daniel, 1998. "Myths Regarding Alternative Fuel Vehicle Demand by Light-Duty Vehicle Fleets," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt0q6053j9, University of California Transportation Center.
    4. Kempton, Willett & Tomic, Jasna & Letendre, Steven & Brooks, Alec & Lipman, Timothy, 2001. "Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt0qp6s4mb, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    5. Turrentine, Tom & Kurani, Kenneth S, 2007. "Car buyers and fuel economy?," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt56x845v4, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    6. Turrentine, Thomas & Lee-Gosselin, Martin & Kurani, Kenneth & Sperling, Daniel, 1992. "A Study of Adaptive and Optimizing Behavior for Electric Vehicles Based on Interactive Simulation Games and Revealed Behavior of Electric Vehicle Owners," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt88v3x3t7, University of California Transportation Center.
    7. Kurani, Kenneth S & Turrentine, Tom & Sperling, Daniel, 1994. "Demand for electric vehicles in hybrid households: an exploratory analysis," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 244-256, October.
    8. DeLuchi, Mark A. & Ogden, Joan M., 1993. "Solar-hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 255-275, May.
    9. Kurani, Kenneth S & Sperling, Daniel & Lipman, Timothy & Stanger, Deborah & Turrentine, Thomas & Stein, Aram, 1995. "Household Markets for Neighborhood Electric Vehicles in California," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt13v2w7x0, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    10. Kempton, Willett & Tomic, Jasna & Letendre, Steven & Brooks, Alec & Lipman, Timothy, 2001. "Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt5cc9g0jp, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    11. Kurani, Kenneth S. & Turrentine, Tom & Sperling, Daniel, 1994. "Demand for Electric Vehicles in Hybrid Households: An Exploratory Analysis," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1c29r4hr, University of California Transportation Center.
    12. Kempton, Willett & Kubo, Toru, 2000. "Electric-drive vehicles for peak power in Japan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 9-18, January.
    13. Turrentine, Thomas S. & Kurani, Kenneth S., 2007. "Car buyers and fuel economy?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1213-1223, February.
    14. Nesbitt, Kevin & Sperling, Daniel, 1998. "Myths Regarding Alternative Fuel Vehicle Demand by Light-Duty Vehicle Fleets," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt07c9h9cd, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    15. Flynn, Peter C., 2002. "Commercializing an alternate vehicle fuel: lessons learned from natural gas for vehicles," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 613-619, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lund, Henrik & Kempton, Willett, 2008. "Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 3578-3587, September.
    2. Andersson, S.-L. & Elofsson, A.K. & Galus, M.D. & Göransson, L. & Karlsson, S. & Johnsson, F. & Andersson, G., 2010. "Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers: Case studies of Sweden and Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 2751-2762, June.
    3. Hardman, Scott & Shiu, Eric & Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert & Turrentine, Thomas, 2017. "Barriers to the adoption of fuel cell vehicles: A qualitative investigation into early adopters attitudes," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 166-182.
    4. Kiviluoma, Juha & Meibom, Peter, 2011. "Methodology for modelling plug-in electric vehicles in the power system and cost estimates for a system with either smart or dumb electric vehicles," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 1758-1767.
    5. Juul, Nina & Meibom, Peter, 2011. "Optimal configuration of an integrated power and transport system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 3523-3530.
    6. Kurani, Kenneth S & Heffner, Reid R. & Turrentine, Tom, 2008. "Driving Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Reports from U.S. Drivers of HEVs converted to PHEVs, circa 2006-07," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt35b6484z, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    7. Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Hirsh, Richard F., 2009. "Beyond batteries: An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1095-1103, March.
    8. Eva Niesten & Albert Jolink, 2014. "Absence of a market in the Dutch balancing mechanism: European rules versus specific investments," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 71-90, August.
    9. Kloess, Maximilian & Müller, Andreas, 2011. "Simulating the impact of policy, energy prices and technological progress on the passenger car fleet in Austria--A model based analysis 2010-2050," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5045-5062, September.
    10. Schmidt, Johannes & Eisel, Matthias & Kolbe, Lutz M., 2014. "Assessing the potential of different charging strategies for electric vehicle fleets in closed transport systems," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 179-189.
    11. Hedegaard, Karsten & Ravn, Hans & Juul, Nina & Meibom, Peter, 2012. "Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 356-368.
    12. Alanne, Kari & Cao, Sunliang, 2017. "Zero-energy hydrogen economy (ZEH2E) for buildings and communities including personal mobility," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 697-711.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    UCD-ITS-RR-07-14; Engineering;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt34x5p0kn. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/itucdus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.