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Dynamic operation model of the battery swapping station for EV (electric vehicle) in electricity market


  • Yang, Shengjie
  • Yao, Jiangang
  • Kang, Tong
  • Zhu, Xiangqian


The BSS (battery swapping station) is a newly proposed mode of supplying power to the EV (electric vehicle). Different from the BCS (battery charging station), the BSS prepares the batteries for EVs in advance and could complete the battery swapping in a short time. The operations designed for the BCS are not appropriate for BSS anymore and the researches about BSS are at the early stage. In this paper, we propose a dynamic operation model of BSS in electricity market. The new model is based on the short-term battery management and includes the mathematical formulation and market strategy. We have tested the model in a 24-hour simulation. The result shows clearly that the BSS makes decisions in market environment through tracing the number of batteries in different kinds of states and acquires additional revenue by responding actively to the price fluctuation in electricity market. The feasibility and the practicability of the model are confirmed.

Suggested Citation

  • Yang, Shengjie & Yao, Jiangang & Kang, Tong & Zhu, Xiangqian, 2014. "Dynamic operation model of the battery swapping station for EV (electric vehicle) in electricity market," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 544-549.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:65:y:2014:i:c:p:544-549
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Juul, Nina, 2012. "Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 403-410.
    2. Axsen, Jonn & Burke, Andy & Kurani, Kenneth S, 2010. "Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt7vh184rw, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    3. Chrobok, R. & Kaumann, O. & Wahle, J. & Schreckenberg, M., 2004. "Different methods of traffic forecast based on real data," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 155(3), pages 558-568, June.
    4. Hadley, Stanton W. & Tsvetkova, Alexandra A., 2009. "Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 22(10), pages 56-68, December.
    5. Axsen, Jonn & Kurani, Kenneth S. & Burke, Andrew, 2010. "Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid buyers?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 173-182, May.
    6. Li, Zhe & Ouyang, Minggao, 2011. "The pricing of charging for electric vehicles in China—Dilemma and solution," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 5765-5778.
    7. Metz, Michael & Doetsch, Christian, 2012. "Electric vehicles as flexible loads – A simulation approach using empirical mobility data," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 369-374.
    8. Arslan, Okan & Karasan, Oya Ekin, 2013. "Cost and emission impacts of virtual power plant formation in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle penetrated networks," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 116-124.
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    Cited by:

    1. Wenxia Liu & Shuya Niu & Huiting Xu & Xiaoying Li, 2016. "A New Method to Plan the Capacity and Location of Battery Swapping Station for Electric Vehicle Considering Demand Side Management," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(6), pages 1-17, June.
    2. Khemakhem, Siwar & Rekik, Mouna & Krichen, Lotfi, 2017. "A flexible control strategy of plug-in electric vehicles operating in seven modes for smoothing load power curves in smart grid," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 197-208.
    3. repec:eee:energy:v:147:y:2018:i:c:p:561-577 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Vassileva, Iana & Campillo, Javier & Schwede, Sebastian, 2017. "Technology assessment of the two most relevant aspects for improving urban energy efficiency identified in six mid-sized European cities from case studies in Sweden," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 194(C), pages 808-818.


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