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Optimal use of kinetic energy for the inertial support from variable speed wind turbines


  • Hafiz, Faizal
  • Abdennour, Adel


The use of kinetic energy, stored in the rotational masses of Variable Speed Wind Turbines (VSWT), for inertial support is well established. The idea is to employ the fast control response of the VSWT to inject additional power for the short duration following the disturbance. However, the variable speed operation of the VSWT poses a great challenge in successfully designing an appropriate control approach, applicable for wide operating ranges, capable of minimizing the effects of energy regain by the Wind Turbine (WT) after the support period. To address this issue, this paper proposes a modified inertia-emulation scheme, based on Step Over-Production (SOP) approach. Further, to enable optimum energy transfer and to handle the problem of variable Stored Kinetic Energy (SKE), the shaping parameters of the proposed scheme are optimized using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The results show that the proposed approach can limit the fall of frequency while reducing post disturbances across the entire operating range of the WT. In addition, the quantitative analysis reveals that the proposed method can easily satisfy the stringent grid code requirements for the inertia emulation and provides a better alternative to the conventional inertia control architectures.

Suggested Citation

  • Hafiz, Faizal & Abdennour, Adel, 2015. "Optimal use of kinetic energy for the inertial support from variable speed wind turbines," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 629-643.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:80:y:2015:i:c:p:629-643
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2015.02.051

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    Cited by:

    1. Ana Fernández-Guillamón & Guillermo Martínez-Lucas & Ángel Molina-García & Jose-Ignacio Sarasua, 2020. "Hybrid Wind–PV Frequency Control Strategy under Variable Weather Conditions in Isolated Power Systems," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(18), pages 1-1, September.
    2. Tielens, Pieter & Van Hertem, Dirk, 2016. "The relevance of inertia in power systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 999-1009.
    3. Fernández-Guillamón, Ana & Gómez-Lázaro, Emilio & Muljadi, Eduard & Molina-García, Ángel, 2019. "Power systems with high renewable energy sources: A review of inertia and frequency control strategies over time," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    4. Ana Fernández-Guillamón & Guillermo Martínez-Lucas & Ángel Molina-García & Jose Ignacio Sarasua, 2020. "An Adaptive Control Scheme for Variable Speed Wind Turbines Providing Frequency Regulation in Isolated Power Systems with Thermal Generation," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(13), pages 1-1, July.
    5. Attya, A.B. & Dominguez-Garcia, J.L. & Anaya-Lara, O., 2018. "A review on frequency support provision by wind power plants: Current and future challenges," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 2071-2087.
    6. Shin Young Heo & Mun Kyeom Kim & Jin Woo Choi, 2015. "Hybrid Intelligent Control Method to Improve the Frequency Support Capability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(10), pages 1-22, October.
    7. Ana Fernández-Guillamón & Antonio Vigueras-Rodríguez & Emilio Gómez-Lázaro & Ángel Molina-García, 2018. "Fast Power Reserve Emulation Strategy for VSWT Supporting Frequency Control in Multi-Area Power Systems," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(10), pages 1-1, October.
    8. Wickramasinghe, Amila & Perera, Sarath & Agalgaonkar, Ashish P. & Meegahapola, Lasantha, 2016. "Synchronous mode operation of DFIG based wind turbines for improvement of power system inertia," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 152-161.
    9. Ana Fernández-Guillamón & Jorge Villena-Lapaz & Antonio Vigueras-Rodríguez & Tania García-Sánchez & Ángel Molina-García, 2018. "An Adaptive Frequency Strategy for Variable Speed Wind Turbines: Application to High Wind Integration Into Power Systems," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(6), pages 1-1, June.
    10. Kheshti, Mostafa & Ding, Lei & Nayeripour, Majid & Wang, Xiaowei & Terzija, Vladimir, 2019. "Active power support of wind turbines for grid frequency events using a reliable power reference scheme," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 1241-1254.
    11. Hafiz, Faizal & Abdennour, Adel, 2016. "An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inertia controller for variable-speed wind turbines," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 136-146.
    12. Zameer Ahmad & Jose Rueda Torres & Nidarshan Veera Kumar & Elyas Rakhshani & Peter Palensky & Mart van der Meijden, 2020. "A Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Based Method for FAPR Compliance Testing of the Wind Turbine Converters Control," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(19), pages 1-1, October.
    13. Müfit Altin & Jan Christian Kuhlmann & Kaushik Das & Anca Daniela Hansen, 2018. "Optimization of Synthetic Inertial Response from Wind Power Plants," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(5), pages 1-1, April.
    14. Azizi, Askar & Nourisola, Hamid & Shoja-Majidabad, Sajjad, 2019. "Fault tolerant control of wind turbines with an adaptive output feedback sliding mode controller," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 55-65.


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