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Large scale wind power integration in China: Analysis from a policy perspective


  • Zhang, Sufang
  • Li, Xingmei


Between 2006 and 2010 the installed capacity of wind power in China has doubled and by 2010 China's cumulative installed capacity of wind power ranked the first in the world, surpassing the United States. However, the rapid expansion of installed capacity has not been matched by grid connection, and this deficiency has aroused the concern of both policy makers and scholars. Unlike most of the current studies which focus on technical strategies in China's wind power industry, this paper analyzes the problem from a policy perspective. The paper analyzes the four challenges that large scale wind power integration in China faces: the uncoordinated development between wind power capacity and power grids; the lack of suitable technical codes for wind power integration; the unclear nature of the grid companies’ responsibility for grid connection; and the inadequate economic incentives for grid enterprises. To address these problems, the paper recommends that the government: formulates policies to better coordinate the development of wind power and the planning and construction of power grids; establishes grid codes that reflect in particular the requirements to be met by users of power transmission and distribution networks; and integrates administrative intervention and economic incentive policies to stimulate the grid enterprises’ enthusiasm to absorb wind power generation.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhang, Sufang & Li, Xingmei, 2012. "Large scale wind power integration in China: Analysis from a policy perspective," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 1110-1115.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:16:y:2012:i:2:p:1110-1115
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.11.007

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. de Alegría, Iñigo Martinez & Andreu, Jon & Martín, José Luis & Ibañez, Pedro & Villate, José Luis & Camblong, Haritza, 2007. "Connection requirements for wind farms: A survey on technical requierements and regulation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 11(8), pages 1858-1872, October.
    2. ZhongXiang Zhang, 2011. "Energy and Environmental Policy in China," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13559, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sahu, Bikash Kumar, 2018. "Wind energy developments and policies in China: A short review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 1393-1405.
    2. Cao, Xun & Kleit, Andrew & Liu, Chuyu, 2016. "Why invest in wind energy? Career incentives and Chinese renewable energy politics," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 120-131.
    3. Liu, Fa & Sun, Fubao & Liu, Wenbin & Wang, Tingting & Wang, Hong & Wang, Xunming & Lim, Wee Ho, 2019. "On wind speed pattern and energy potential in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 236(C), pages 867-876.
    4. Zhang, Shijie & Wei, Jing & Chen, Xi & Zhao, Yuhao, 2020. "China in global wind power development: Role, status and impact," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).
    5. Zhihui Leng & Jing Shuai & Fubin Huang & Zihan Wang & Chuanmin Shuai, 2019. "Comparative advantages of China’s wind energy products: a Belt-and-Road perspective," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 53(3), pages 1459-1478, May.
    6. Zhang, Sufang & He, Yongxiu, 2013. "Analysis on the development and policy of solar PV power in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 393-401.
    7. Zhao, Zhen-Yu & Chen, Yu-Long & Chang, Rui-Dong, 2016. "How to stimulate renewable energy power generation effectively? – China's incentive approaches and lessons," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 147-156.
    8. Ming, Zeng & Song, Xue & Mingjuan, Ma & Xiaoli, Zhu, 2013. "New energy bases and sustainable development in China: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 169-185.
    9. He, Y.X. & Zhu, M.Z. & Xiong, W. & Zhang, T. & Ge, X.L., 2012. "Electricity transmission tariffs for large-scale wind power consumption in western Gansu province, China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 4543-4550.
    10. Yuan, Jiahai & Sun, Shenghui & Shen, Jiakun & Xu, Yan & Zhao, Changhong, 2014. "Wind power supply chain in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 356-369.
    11. Zhang, Yachao & Le, Jian & Liao, Xiaobing & Zheng, Feng & Liu, Kaipei & An, Xueli, 2018. "Multi-objective hydro-thermal-wind coordination scheduling integrated with large-scale electric vehicles using IMOPSO," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 128(PA), pages 91-107.
    12. Ming, Zeng & Shaojie, Ouyang & Hui, Shi & Yujian, Ge & Qiqi, Qian, 2015. "Overall review of distributed energy development in China: Status quo, barriers and solutions," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1226-1238.
    13. Bao, Chao & Fang, Chuang-lin, 2013. "Geographical and environmental perspectives for the sustainable development of renewable energy in urbanizing China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 464-474.
    14. Zhao, Xiaoli & Cai, Qiong & Zhang, Sufang & Luo, Kaiyan, 2017. "The substitution of wind power for coal-fired power to realize China's CO2 emissions reduction targets in 2020 and 2030," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 164-178.
    15. Zhao, Xiaoli & Zhang, Sufang & Yang, Rui & Wang, Mei, 2012. "Constraints on the effective utilization of wind power in China: An illustration from the northeast China grid," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 4508-4514.
    16. Gosens, Jorrit & Lu, Yonglong, 2013. "From lagging to leading? Technological innovation systems in emerging economies and the case of Chinese wind power," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 234-250.
    17. Zhang, Sufang & Wang, Wei & Wang, Lu & Zhao, Xiaoli, 2015. "Review of China’s wind power firms internationalization: Status quo, determinants, prospects and policy implications," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 1333-1342.
    18. Zhang, Sufang & Andrews-Speed, Philip & Zhao, Xiaoli, 2013. "Political and institutional analysis of the successes and failures of China’s wind power policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 331-340.
    19. Pei, Wei & Chen, Yanning & Sheng, Kun & Deng, Wei & Du, Yan & Qi, Zhiping & Kong, Li, 2015. "Temporal-spatial analysis and improvement measures of Chinese power system for wind power curtailment problem," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 148-168.
    20. Gosens, Jorrit & Lu, Yonglong, 2014. "Prospects for global market expansion of China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 301-318.
    21. Lu, Ze-Yu & Li, Wen-Hua & Xie, Bai-Chen & Shang, Li-Feng, 2015. "Study on China’s wind power development path—Based on the target for 2030," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 197-208.
    22. Ming, Zeng & Ximei, Liu & Na, Li & Song, Xue, 2013. "Overall review of renewable energy tariff policy in China: Evolution, implementation, problems and countermeasures," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 260-271.
    23. Ouyang, Xiaoling & Lin, Boqiang, 2014. "Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies and required subsidies in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 64-73.
    24. Koltsaklis, Nikolaos E. & Dagoumas, Athanasios S., 2018. "State-of-the-art generation expansion planning: A review," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 230(C), pages 563-589.
    25. Flora, Rui & Marques, António Cardoso & Fuinhas, José Alberto, 2014. "Wind power idle capacity in a panel of European countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 823-830.


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