IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Carbon-based Border Tax Adjustments and China's International Trade: Analysis based on a Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Model

  • Ling Tang
  • Qin Bao
  • ZhongXiang Zhang


  • Shouyang Wang

With large shares in global trade and carbon emissions, China's international trade is supposed to be significantly affected by the proposed carbon-based border tax adjustments (BTAs). This paper examines the impacts of BTAs imposed by USA and EU on China's international trade, based on a multi-sector dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The simulation results suggest that BTAs would have a negative impact on China's international trade in terms of large losses in both exports and imports. As an additional border tariff, BTAs will directly affect China's exports by cutting down exports price level, whereas Chinese exporting enterprises will accordingly modify their strategies, significantly shifting from exports to domestic markets and from regions with BTAs policies towards other regions without them. Moreover, BTAs will affect China's total imports and sectoral import through influencing the whole economy in an indirect but more intricate way. Furthermore, the simulation results for coping policies indicate that enhancing China's power in world price determination and improving energy technology efficiency will effectively help mitigate the damages caused by BTAs.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Centre for Climate Economics & Policy, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University in its series CCEP Working Papers with number 1301.

in new window

Date of creation: Jan 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:een:ccepwp:1301
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Crawford Building, Lennox Crossing, Building #132, Canberra ACT 2601

Phone: +61 2 6125 4705
Fax: +61 2 6125 5448
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Stiglitz Joseph, 2006. "A New Agenda for Global Warming," The Economists' Voice, De Gruyter, vol. 3(7), pages 1-4, July.
  2. Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2009. "Multilateral trade measures in a post-2012 climate change regime? What can be taken from the Montreal Protocol and the WTO?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5105-5112, December.
  3. Yan Dong & John Walley, 2012. "How Large Are The Impacts Of Carbon Motivated Border Tax Adjustments?," Climate Change Economics (CCE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 3(01), pages 1250001-1-1.
  4. Matthias Weitzel & Michael Hübler & Sonja Peterson, 2012. "Fair, Optimal or Detrimental? Environmental vs. Strategic Use of Border Carbon Adjustment," Kiel Working Papers 1792, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  5. Warwick J. McKibbin & Peter J. Wilcoxen, 2009. "The Economic And Environmental Effects Of Border Tax Adjustments For Climate Policy," CAMA Working Papers 2009-09, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  6. Liang, Qiao-Mei & Fan, Ying & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2007. "Carbon taxation policy in China: How to protect energy- and trade-intensive sectors?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 311-333.
  7. Yan Dong & John Whalley, 2009. "Carbon Motivated Regional Trade Arrangements: Analytics and Simulations," NBER Working Papers 14880, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Stéphanie Monjon & Philippe Quirion, 2010. "How to Design a Border Adjustment for the European Union Emissions Trading System?," Working Papers 2010.36, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  9. Qin Bao & Ling Tang & Zhongxiang Zhang & Han Qiao & Shouyang Wang, 2012. "Impacts of Border Carbon Adjustments on China's Sectoral Emissions: Simulations with a Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Model," CCEP Working Papers 1202, Centre for Climate Economics & Policy, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  10. Trevor Houser & Rob Bradley & Britt Childs, 2008. "Leveling the Carbon Playing Field: International Competition and US Climate Policy Design," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 4204, January.
  11. Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2010. "Is it fair to treat China as a Christmas tree to hang everybody's complaints? Putting its own energy saving into perspective," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(Supplemen), pages S47-S56, September.
  12. Li, Aijun & Zhang, Aizhen, 2012. "Will carbon motivated border tax adjustments function as a threat?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 81-90.
  13. Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2009. "The U.S. proposed carbon tariffs, wto scrutiny and China's reponses," MPRA Paper 18976, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 02 Dec 2009.
  14. ZhongXiang Zhang, 1998. "The Economics of Energy Policy in China," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 1291, March.
  15. Zhang, ZhongXiang & Baranzini, Andrea, 2004. "What do we know about carbon taxes? An inquiry into their impacts on competitiveness and distribution of income," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 507-518, March.
  16. repec:dau:papers:123456789/7940 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Weber, Christopher L. & Peters, Glen P., 2009. "Climate change policy and international trade: Policy considerations in the US," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 432-440, February.
  18. Carsten A. Holz, 2005. "China’s Economic Growth 1978-2025: What We Know Today about China’s Economic Growth Tomorrow," Development and Comp Systems 0507001, EconWPA.
  19. John B. Shoven & John Whalley, 1972. "A General Equilibrium Calculation of the Effects of Differential Taxation of Income from Capital in the U.S," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 328, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  20. Dissou, Yazid & Eyland, Terry, 2011. "Carbon control policies, competitiveness, and border tax adjustments," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 556-564, May.
  21. Wang, Ke & Wang, Can & Chen, Jining, 2009. "Analysis of the economic impact of different Chinese climate policy options based on a CGE model incorporating endogenous technological change," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2930-2940, August.
  22. van Asselt, Harro & Brewer, Thomas, 2010. "Addressing competitiveness and leakage concerns in climate policy: An analysis of border adjustment measures in the US and the EU," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 42-51, January.
  23. ZhongXiang Zhang, 1996. "Macroeconomic Effects of CO2 Emission Limits: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis for China," Mansholt Working Papers 01-96, Wageningen University, Mansholt Graduate School of Social Sciences.
  24. Rivers, Nic, 2010. "Impacts of climate policy on the competitiveness of Canadian industry: How big and how to mitigate?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 1092-1104, September.
  25. van Asselt, Harro & Biermann, Frank, 2007. "European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 497-506, January.
  26. ZhongXiang Zhang, 2010. "China in the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy," Economics Study Area Working Papers 109, East-West Center, Economics Study Area.
  27. Zhang, Zhong Xiang, 2012. "Competitiveness and Leakage Concerns and Border Carbon Adjustments," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 6(3), pages 225-287, December.
  28. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10122 is not listed on IDEAS
  29. ZhongXiang Zhang, 2011. "Energy and Environmental Policy in China," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13559, March.
  30. McFarland, J. R. & Reilly, J. M. & Herzog, H. J., 2004. "Representing energy technologies in top-down economic models using bottom-up information," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 685-707, July.
  31. Stephanie Monjon & Philippe Quirion, 2011. "A border adjustment for the EU ETS: reconciling WTO rules and capacity to tackle carbon leakage," Post-Print hal-00715462, HAL.
  32. Daniel Gros, 2009. "Global Welfare Implications of Carbon Border Taxes," CESifo Working Paper Series 2790, CESifo Group Munich.
  33. repec:dau:papers:123456789/7348 is not listed on IDEAS
  34. Lin, Boqiang & Li, Aijun, 2011. "Impacts of carbon motivated border tax adjustments on competitiveness across regions in China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 5111-5118.
  35. Kuik, Onno & Hofkes, Marjan, 2010. "Border adjustment for European emissions trading: Competitiveness and carbon leakage," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1741-1748, April.
  36. Ghosh, Madanmohan & Luo, Deming & Siddiqui, Muhammad Shahid & Zhu, Yunfa, 2012. "Border tax adjustments in the climate policy context: CO2 versus broad-based GHG emission targeting," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages S154-S167.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:een:ccepwp:1301. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (David Stern)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.