Multilateral Trade Measures in a Post-2012 Climate Change Regime?: What Can Be Taken from the Montreal Protocol and the WTO?
The climate-trade nexus gains increasing attention as governments are taking great efforts to forge a post-2012 climate change regime to succeed the Kyoto Protocol. This raises the issues of the scope of trade-related measures and of when and how they could be used. To gain some guidance on the scope of trade provisions in a post-2012 climate regime, this paper first discusses the Montreal Protocol in which such trade provisions have been included. The paper argues that while it is unlikely for developing country parties to agree the inclusion of trade-related measures in a post-2012 climate regime, trade-related measures should, at the very least, be contemplated for a set of industrialized countries (Annex I or II countries) as part of the evolving climate regime. It should be specified how these measures will apply to non-complying parties within this group and when and how unilateral trade measures can be used against countries outside the group. To that end, the paper emphasizes that there is a clear need to define comparable efforts towards climate mitigation and adaptation to discipline the use of unilateral trade measures at the international level, as the Lieberman-Warner bill in the U.S. Senate demonstrated great possibility that some industrialized countries, if not all, are considering the term “comparable” as the standard by which to assess the efforts made by their trading partners in order to decide on whether to impose unilateral trade measures on them. While that bill died on the floor of the Senate, this is by no means the end of the prospect for border adjustment type of unilateral trade measures bill. The paper argues that the Lieberman-Warner type of border adjustment bill, in its current form, is likely to face WTO-consistency and methodological challenges. It also holds out more sticks than carrots to developing countries. In order to encourage developing countries to do more to combat climate change, the paper suggests that developed countries should clearly focus on carrots. Sticks can be incorporated, but only if they are credible and realistic and serve as a useful supplement to push developing countries to take actions or adopt policies and measures earlier than would otherwise have been the case.
|Date of creation:||05 Sep 2008|
|Date of revision:||29 Dec 2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2008.
"How far can developing country commitments go in an immediate post-2012 climate regime?,"
12441, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Dec 2008.
- Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2009. "How far can developing country commitments go in an immediate post-2012 climate regime?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1753-1757, May.
- Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2008.
"Asian Energy and Environmental Policy: Promoting Growth While Preserving the Environment,"
12224, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2008. "Asian energy and environmental policy: Promoting growth while preserving the environment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 3905-3924, October.
- Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2010.
"Is it fair to treat China as a Christmas tree to hang everybody's complaints? Putting its own energy saving into perspective,"
Elsevier, vol. 32(Supplemen), pages S47-S56, September.
- Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2008. "Is it fair to treat China as a Christmas tree to hang everybody’s complaints? putting its own energy saving into perspective," MPRA Paper 12276, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- ZhongXiang Zhang, 2009. "Is It Fair to Treat China as a Christmas Tree to Hang Everybody’s Complaints? Putting its Own Energy Saving into Perspective," Working Papers 2009.45, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2000. "Can China afford to commit itself an emissions cap? An economic and political analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 587-614, December.
- Roland Ismer & Karsten Neuhoff, 2007. "Border tax adjustment: a feasible way to support stringent emission trading," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 137-164, October.
- Parry, Ian W. H. & Williams, Roberton III & Goulder, Lawrence H., 1999.
"When Can Carbon Abatement Policies Increase Welfare? The Fundamental Role of Distorted Factor Markets,"
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management,
Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 52-84, January.
- Ian W. H. Parry & Roberton C. Williams III & Lawrence H. Goulder, 1997. "When Can Carbon Abatement Policies Increase Welfare? The Fundamental Role of Distorted Factor Markets," NBER Working Papers 5967, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Parry, Ian & Goulder, Lawrence & Williams III, Roberton, 1997. "When Can Carbon Abatement Policies Increase Welfare? The Fundamental Role of Distorted Factor Markets," Discussion Papers dp-97-18-rev, Resources For the Future.
- Zhang, Zhong Xiang, 1999. "Should the rules of allocating emissions permits be harmonised?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 11-18, October.
- Zhongxiang Zhang, 2007.
"Why has China not embraced a global cap-and-trade regime?,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(2), pages 166-170, March.
- Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2003. "Why Has China not Embraced a Global Cap-and-Trade Regime?," MPRA Paper 12783, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jul 2007.
- Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Steve Charnovitz & Jisun Kim, 2009. "Global Warming and the World Trading System," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 4280.
- James Poterba & Julio Rotemberg, 1995. "Environmental taxes on intermediate and final goods when both can be imported," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 221-228, August.
- ZhongXiang Zhang & Lucas Assunao, 2004.
"Domestic Climate Policies and the WTO,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(3), pages 359-386, 03.
- ZhongXiang Zhang, 2003. "Open Trade with the U.S. without Compromising Canada’s Ability to Comply with its Kyoto Target," Working Papers 2003.68, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Zhang, ZhongXiang, 1998. "Greenhouse gas emissions trading and the world trading system," MPRA Paper 12971, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Emma Paulsson, 2009. "A review of the CDM literature: from fine-tuning to critical scrutiny?," International Environmental Agreements- Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 63-80, February.
- ZhongXiang Zhang, 0. "The Economics of Energy Policy in China," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 1291.
- Bhagwati, Jagdish & Mavroidis, Petros C., 2007. "Is action against US exports for failure to sign Kyoto Protocol WTO-legal?," World Trade Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(02), pages 299-310, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:12782. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.