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Border tax adjustments in the climate policy context: CO2 versus broad-based GHG emission targeting

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  • Ghosh, Madanmohan
  • Luo, Deming
  • Siddiqui, Muhammad Shahid
  • Zhu, Yunfa

Abstract

Using a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, this paper compares the efficiency, distributional and emission leakage effects of border tax adjustments (BTAs) as part of unilateral climate policies that are based on carbon dioxide (CO2)-only versus those based on all greenhouse gases (GHGs). Simulation results suggest that the broad-based GHG policies in general have lower efficiency costs and result in less re-distributive effects. BTAs bring modest efficiency gains with adverse distributional consequences. The distributional impacts are smaller under broad-based GHG policies compared to that based on CO2 only. However, these are due to a wider variety of abatement options under multi-gas policies rather than the BTAs per se. The main difference between the two policies is distributional effects. First, CO2-only based policies have worse impacts on fossil fuel exporters such as Russia and relatively better outcomes for oil importers such as India and China, compared to that of multi-gas policies particularly when it involves large global emission reduction. Second, sectoral coverage under BTAs also influences the differential outcomes. For example, Brazil is worse impacted under GHG-based policies if agriculture is brought under BTAs as two-third of its emissions are non-CO2 based and agriculture is the primary source of these emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Ghosh, Madanmohan & Luo, Deming & Siddiqui, Muhammad Shahid & Zhu, Yunfa, 2012. "Border tax adjustments in the climate policy context: CO2 versus broad-based GHG emission targeting," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages 154-167.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:34:y:2012:i:s2:p:s154-s167
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2012.09.005
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Paola Rocchi & Iñaki Arto & Jordi Roca & Mònica Serrano, 2015. "Carbon-motivated border tax adjustment: a proposal for the EU," UB Economics Working Papers 2015/327, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat d'Economia i Empresa, UB Economics.
    2. Madison Condon & Ada Ignaciuk, 2013. "Border Carbon Adjustment and International Trade: A Literature Review," OECD Trade and Environment Working Papers 2013/6, OECD Publishing.
    3. repec:eee:rensus:v:78:y:2017:i:c:p:61-71 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Eleni Stathopoulou, 2014. "Environmental campaigns and endogenous technology choice under international oligopoly," Discussion Papers in Economics 14/10, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
    5. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:6:p:1028-:d:101610 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Sakamoto, Tomoyuki & Managi, Shunsuke, 2015. "Energy pricing impact on domestic economy under recent climate action," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 150-162.
    7. Ling Tang & Qin Bao & ZhongXiang Zhang & Shouyang Wang, 2015. "Carbon-based border tax adjustments and China’s international trade: analysis based on a dynamic computable general equilibrium model," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 17(2), pages 329-360, April.
    8. Christoph Böhringer & Jan Schneider & Emmanuel Asane-Otoo, 2016. "Trade In Carbon And The Effectiveness Of Carbon Tariffs," Working Papers V-388-16, University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2016.
    9. Böhringer, Christoph & Balistreri, Edward J. & Rutherford, Thomas F., 2012. "The role of border carbon adjustment in unilateral climate policy: Overview of an Energy Modeling Forum study (EMF 29)," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages 97-110.
    10. Branger, Frédéric & Quirion, Philippe, 2014. "Would border carbon adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry competitiveness losses? Insights from a meta-analysis of recent economic studies," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 29-39.
    11. Yunfa Zhu & Madanmohan Ghosh, 2014. "Temperature control, emission abatement and costs: key EMF 27 results from Environment Canada’s Integrated Assessment Model," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 123(3), pages 571-582, April.
    12. Jared C. Carbone & Nicholas Rivers, 2014. "Climate policy and competitiveness: Policy guidance and quantitative evidence," Working Papers 2014-05, Colorado School of Mines, Division of Economics and Business.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Carbon leakage; Border tax adjustments (BTAs); Competitiveness;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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