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Border Carbon Adjustment and International Trade: A Literature Review

Author

Listed:
  • Madison Condon

    (Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy)

  • Ada Ignaciuk

    (OECD)

Abstract

An important source of political opposition to measures aimed at reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) arises from concerns over their negative effects on the competitiveness of domestic firms, especially those that are energy-intensive and exposed to competition from foreign producers. Politicians and industry representatives alike fear that imports from countries without similar regulations can gain cost-of-production advantages over domestic goods. With many of the major economies of the world contemplating unilateral action to restrict their carbon emissions (while continuing to pursue co-ordinated multilateral action), the parallel concern of carbon leakage — whereby domestic reductions in emissions are partially or wholly counterbalanced by increased emissions elsewhere in the world — has also arisen. Various adjustments have been proposed, both in the academic literature and in draft climate legislation, including levying a border tax or requiring importers to surrender a quantity of carbon permits. Collectively, these kinds of adjustments are often referred to as border carbon adjustments, or BCAs. This note reviews the existing literature on BCAs and alternatives to BCAs and discusses what various researchers have concluded about the efficacy of BCAs from both a trade and an environmental perspective.

Suggested Citation

  • Madison Condon & Ada Ignaciuk, 2013. "Border Carbon Adjustment and International Trade: A Literature Review," OECD Trade and Environment Working Papers 2013/6, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:traaaa:2013/6-en
    DOI: 10.1787/5k3xn25b386c-en
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    Cited by:

    1. Nur Sunar & Erica Plambeck, 2016. "Allocating Emissions Among Co-Products: Implications for Procurement and Climate Policy," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 18(3), pages 414-428, July.
    2. Michael Keen & Ian Parry & James Roaf, 2022. "Border carbon adjustments: rationale, design and impact," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(3), pages 209-234, September.
    3. Ian Sheldon & Steve McCorriston, 2017. "Climate Policy and Border Measures: The Case of the U.S. Aluminum Industry," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 39(2), pages 242-258.
    4. Miria A. Pigato, 2019. "Fiscal Policies for Development and Climate Action," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 31051, December.
    5. Sigit Perdana & Marc Vielle, 2023. "Carbon border adjustment mechanism in the transition to net-zero emissions: collective implementation and distributional impacts," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 25(3), pages 299-329, July.
    6. Distefano, Tiziano & D’Alessandro, Simone, 2023. "Introduction of the carbon tax in Italy: Is there room for a quadruple-dividend effect?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(C).
    7. Suzi Kerr & Steffen Lippert & Edmund Lou, 2019. "Financial Transfers and Climate Cooperation," Working Papers 19_04, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    8. Winston W. Chang, 2017. "World Trade and the Environment: Issues and Policies," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 435-479, August.
    9. Zhang, Zengkai & Zhu, Kunfu, 2017. "Border carbon adjustments for exports of the United States and the European Union: Taking border-crossing frequency into account," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 201(C), pages 188-199.
    10. Sergei S. Sudakov & Samvel S. Lazaryan & Anton I. Votinov, 2022. "EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism: Assessment of Future Payments for Exporters," Finansovyj žhurnal — Financial Journal, Financial Research Institute, Moscow 125375, Russia, issue 5, pages 71-88, October.
    11. Antimiani, Alessandro & Costantini, Valeria & Kuik, Onno & Paglialunga, Elena, 2016. "Mitigation of adverse effects on competitiveness and leakage of unilateral EU climate policy: An assessment of policy instruments," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 246-259.
    12. Alexander Krenek & Mark Sommer & Margit Schratzenstaller, 2021. "A WTO-compatible Border Tax Adjustment for the ETS to Finance the EU Budget," WIFO Working Papers 596, WIFO.
    13. David F. Drake, 2018. "Carbon Tariffs: Effects in Settings with Technology Choice and Foreign Production Cost Advantage," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 20(4), pages 667-686, October.
    14. Banerjee, Suvajit, 2020. "Border vis-à-vis Domestic Carbon Adjustment: Implications of Alternative System Boundary for India to Reduce Carbon Emissions," Conference papers 333129, Purdue University, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Global Trade Analysis Project.
    15. Warwick J. Mckibbin & Adele C. Morris & Peter J. Wilcoxen & Weifeng Liu, 2018. "The Role Of Border Carbon Adjustments In A U.S. Carbon Tax," Climate Change Economics (CCE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 9(01), pages 1-41, February.
    16. Michael Mehling & Robert Ritz, 2020. "Going beyond default intensities in an EU carbon border adjustment mechanism," Working Papers EPRG2026, Energy Policy Research Group, Cambridge Judge Business School, University of Cambridge.
    17. Banerjee, Suvajit, 2021. "Conjugation of border and domestic carbon adjustment and implications under production and consumption-based accounting of India's National Emission Inventory: A recursive dynamic CGE analysis," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 68-86.
    18. Sining Song & Yan Dong & Thomas Kull & Craig Carter & Kefeng Xu, 2023. "Supply chain leakage of greenhouse gas emissions and supplier innovation," Production and Operations Management, Production and Operations Management Society, vol. 32(3), pages 882-903, March.
    19. Hafele, Jakob & Kuhls, Sonia, 2022. "Trade-off or tension: Can carbon be priced without risking economic competitiveness?," ZOE Discussion Papers 9, ZOE. institute for future-fit economies, Bonn.
    20. Hana Nielsen & Astrid Kander, 2020. "Trade in the Carbon-Constrained Future: Exploiting the Comparative Carbon Advantage of Swedish Trade," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(14), pages 1-25, July.
    21. Fang, Yuan & Yu, Yugang & Shi, Ye & Liu, Jie, 2020. "The effect of carbon tariffs on global emission control: A global supply chain model," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    border carbon adjustment; border tax adjustment; climate change; trade and environment;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • F53 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
    • F59 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - Other
    • F64 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - Environment
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • K32 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Energy, Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
    • K33 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - International Law
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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