IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/oec/ecoaaa/794-en.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Is there a Case for Carbon-Based Border Tax Adjustment?: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Jean-Marc Burniaux

    (OECD)

  • Jean Château

    (OECD)

  • Romain Duval

    (OECD)

Abstract

Concern that unilateral greenhouse gas emission reductions could foster carbon leakage and undermine the international competitiveness of domestic industry has led to growing calls for carbon-based border-tax adjustments (BTAs). This paper uses a global general equilibrium model to assess the economic effects of BTAs and comes to three main conclusions. First, BTAs can reduce carbon leakage if the coalition of countries taking action to reduce emissions is small, because in this case leakage (while typically small) mainly occurs through international trade competitiveness losses rather than through declines in world fossil fuel prices that trigger rising carbon intensities outside the region taking action. Second, the welfare impacts of BTAs are small, and typically slightly negative at the world level. Third, and perhaps more strikingly, BTAs do not necessarily curb the output losses incurred by the domestic energy intensive-industries (EIIs) they are intended to protect in the first place. This is in part because taken as a whole, EIIs in industrialised countries make important use of carbon-intensive intermediate inputs produced by EIIs in other geographical areas. Another, deeper explanation is that EIIs are ultimately more adversely affected by carbon pricing itself, and the associated contraction in market size, than by any international competitiveness losses. These findings are shown to be robust to key model parameters, country coverage and design features of BTAs. Y-a-t-il un argument en faveur d'une taxe carbone aux frontières ? : Une analyse d'équilibre général Les craintes que des réductions unilatérales d’émissions de gaz à effet de serre soient en partie compensées par des fuites de carbone tout en ayant un effet négatif sur la compétitivité des industries domestiques ont entraîné des appels croissants en faveur de taxes carbone aux frontières (TCFs). Cet article utilise un modèle d’équilibre général appliqué pour évaluer les effets économiques des TCFs et aboutit à trois conclusions. Premièrement, les TCFs peuvent réduire les fuites de carbone lorsque la coalition de pays prenant des mesures de réduction des émissions est réduite, car dans ce cas les fuites carbone (quoique typiquement faibles) se produisent essentiellement via des pertes de compétitivité internationale, plutôt que via des baisses du prix mondial des énergies fossiles qui entraînent une hausse de l’intensité en carbone dans le reste du monde. Deuxièmement, les impacts des TCFs sur le bien-être sont faibles, et typiquement légèrement négatifs au niveau mondial. Troisièmement, et peut-être de façon plus frappante, les TCFs n’atténuent pas nécessairement les pertes de production subies par les industries domestiques intensives en énergie (IIEs) qu’elles sont pourtant censées protéger. Cela tient en partie à ce que prises dans leur ensemble, les IIEs dans les pays industrialisés utilisent de façon importante des intrants intensifs en carbone produits par les IIEs d’autres zones géographiques. Une autre explication plus profonde est que les IIEs sont in fine davantage touchées par l’existence d’un prix du carbone lui-même, et par la contraction de la taille du marché qui s’en suit, que par de quelconques pertes de compétitivité internationale. Ces résultats s’avèrent robustes à des hypothèses alternatives concernant certains paramètres clé du modèle, les pays couverts et les modalités de mise en place des TCFs.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Marc Burniaux & Jean Château & Romain Duval, 2010. "Is there a Case for Carbon-Based Border Tax Adjustment?: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 794, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:794-en
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kmbjhcqqk0r-en
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bun, Maurice J.G. & Carree, Martin A., 2005. "Bias-Corrected Estimation in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 23, pages 200-210, April.
    2. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    3. Hansen, Bruce E., 1999. "Threshold effects in non-dynamic panels: Estimation, testing, and inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 345-368, December.
    4. Honohan, Patrick & Lane, Philip R., 2004. "Exchange Rates and Inflation Under EMU: An Update," CEPR Discussion Papers 4583, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Kocenda, Evzen & Kutan, Ali M. & Yigit, Taner M., 2006. "Pilgrims to the Eurozone: How far, how fast?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 311-327, December.
    6. Peter Backé & Jarko Fidrmuc & Thomas Reininger & Franz Schardax, 2003. "Price Dynamics in Central and Eastern European EU Accession Countries," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(3), pages 42-78, May.
    7. Bruno, Giovanni S.F., 2005. "Approximating the bias of the LSDV estimator for dynamic unbalanced panel data models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 361-366, June.
    8. Bun, Maurice J. G. & Kiviet, Jan F., 2003. "On the diminishing returns of higher-order terms in asymptotic expansions of bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 145-152, May.
    9. Buli­r, Ales & Hurni­k, Jaromi­r, 2008. "Why has inflation in the European Union stopped converging?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 341-347.
    10. John H. Rogers & Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Erika Wada, 2001. "Price Level Convergence and Inflation in Europe," Working Paper Series WP01-1, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    11. Balázs Égert & László Halpern & Ronald MacDonald, 2006. "Equilibrium Exchange Rates in Transition Economies: Taking Stock of the Issues ," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 257-324, April.
    12. Giovanni S. F. Bruno, 2005. "Estimation and inference in dynamic unbalanced panel-data models with a small number of individuals," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 5(4), pages 473-500, December.
    13. Ashoka Mody & Franziska L Ohnsorge, 2007. "Can Domestic Policies Influence Inflation?," IMF Working Papers 07/257, International Monetary Fund.
    14. repec:bil:bilpap:0501 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Lommatzsch, Kirsten & Tober, Silke, 2004. "What is behind the real appreciation of the accession countries' currencies?: An investigation of the PPI-based real exchange rate," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 383-403, December.
    16. Peter Backé & Jarko Fidrmuc & Thomas Reininger & Franz Schardax, 2002. "Price Dynamics in Central and Eastern European EU Accession," Working Papers 61, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    17. Kiviet, Jan F., 1995. "On bias, inconsistency, and efficiency of various estimators in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 53-78, July.
    18. Hofmann, Boris & Remsperger, Hermann, 2005. "Inflation differentials among the Euro area countries: Potential causes and consequences," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 403-419, June.
    19. MacDonald, Ronald & Wójcik, Cezary, 2008. "Catching-up and inflation differentials in a heterogeneous monetary union: Some implications for the euro area and new EU Member States," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 4-16, March.
    20. Dobrinsky, Rumen, 2006. "Catch-up inflation and nominal convergence: The balancing act for new EU entrants," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 424-442, December.
    21. Henning Ahnert & Geoff Kenny, 2004. "Quality adjustment of European price statistics and the role for hedonics," Occasional Paper Series 15, European Central Bank.
    22. Dubravko Mihaljek & Marc Klau, 2008. "Catching-up and inflation in transition economies: the Balassa-Samuelson effect revisited," BIS Working Papers 270, Bank for International Settlements.
    23. Felix Hammermann & Mark Flanagan, 2009. "What explains persistent inflation differentials across transition economies?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(2), pages 297-328, April.
    24. Hammermann, Felix, 2007. "Nonmonetary Determinants of Inflation in Romania: A Decomposition," Kiel Working Papers 1322, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    25. Barlow, David, 2010. "How did structural reform influence inflation in transition economies?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 198-210, June.
    26. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Springmann, Marco, 2012. "A look inwards: Carbon tariffs versus internal improvements in emissions-trading systems," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages 228-239.
    2. Böhringer, Christoph & Fischer, Carolyn & Rosendahl, Knut Einar, 2014. "Cost-effective unilateral climate policy design: Size matters," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 318-339.
    3. Karl Steininger & Christian Lininger & Susanne Droege & Dominic Roser & Luke Tomlinson, 2012. "Towards a Just and Cost-Effective Climate Policy: On the relevance and implications of deciding between a Production versus Consumption Based Approach," Graz Economics Papers 2012-06, University of Graz, Department of Economics.
    4. Irfanoglu, Zeynep Burcu & Golub, Alla A. & Hertel, Thomas W. & Henderson, Benjamin B., 2012. "Effects of carbon-based border tax adjustments on carbon leakage and competitiveness in livestock sectors," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 125006, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    5. Lanzi, Elisa & Chateau, Jean & Dellink, Rob, 2012. "Alternative approaches for levelling carbon prices in a world with fragmented carbon markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages 240-250.
    6. Jared C. Carbone & Nicholas Rivers, 2014. "Climate policy and competitiveness: Policy guidance and quantitative evidence," Working Papers 2014-05, Colorado School of Mines, Division of Economics and Business.
    7. Dong, Yanli & Ishikawa, Masanobu & Hagiwara, Taiji, 2015. "Economic and environmental impact analysis of carbon tariffs on Chinese exports," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 80-95.
    8. Daniel Becker & Magdalena Brzeskot & Wolfgang Peters & Ulrike Will, 2013. "Grenzausgleichsinstrumente bei unilateralen Klimaschutzmaßnahmen. Eine ökonomische und WTO-rechtliche Analyse," ZfU - Zeitschrift für Umweltpolitik und Umweltrecht, RECAP15, European University Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder), vol. 36(3), pages 339-373, September.
    9. Bao, Qin & Tang, Ling & Zhang, ZhongXiang & Wang, Shouyang, 2013. "Impacts of border carbon adjustments on China's sectoral emissions: Simulations with a dynamic computable general equilibrium model," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 77-94.
    10. Paola Rocchi & Iñaki Arto & Jordi Roca & Mònica Serrano, 2015. "Carbon-motivated border tax adjustment: a proposal for the EU," UB Economics Working Papers 2015/327, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat d'Economia i Empresa, UB Economics.
    11. Antimiani, Alessandro & Costantini, Valeria & Martini, Chiara & Salvatici, Luca & Tommasino, Maria Cristina, 2013. "Assessing alternative solutions to carbon leakage," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 299-311.
    12. repec:euv:dpaper:9999 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Christian Lininger, 2013. "Consumption-Based Approaches in International Climate Policy: An Analytical Evaluation of the Implications for Cost-Effectiveness, Carbon Leakage, and the International Income Distribution," Graz Economics Papers 2013-03, University of Graz, Department of Economics.
    14. Aaditya Mattoo & Arvind Subramanian & Dominique Mensbrugghe & Jianwu He, 2013. "Trade effects of alternative carbon border-tax schemes," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(3), pages 587-609, September.
    15. Michael Jakob & Robert Marschinski & Michael Hübler, 2013. "Between a Rock and a Hard Place: A Trade-Theory Analysis of Leakage Under Production- and Consumption-Based Policies," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 56(1), pages 47-72, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    atténuation; border tax adjustment; changement climatique; climate change; computable general equilibrium model; migration; modèle d'équilibre général calculable; taxe carbone aux frontières;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:794-en. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/edoecfr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.