IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Electric vehicles and smart grid interaction: A review on vehicle to grid and renewable energy sources integration


  • Mwasilu, Francis
  • Justo, Jackson John
  • Kim, Eun-Kyung
  • Do, Ton Duc
  • Jung, Jin-Woo


This paper presents a comprehensive review and assessment of the latest research and advancement of electric vehicles (EVs) interaction with smart grid portraying the future electric power system model. The concept goal of the smart grid along with the future deployment of the EVs puts forward various challenges in terms of electric grid infrastructure, communication and control. Following an intensive review on advanced smart metering and communication infrastructures, the strategy for integrating the EVs into the electric grid is presented. Various EV smart charging technologies are also extensively examined with the perspective of their potential, impacts and limitations under the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) phenomenon. Moreover, the high penetration of renewable energy sources (wind and photovoltaic solar) is soaring up into the power system. However, their intermittent power output poses different challenges on the planning, operation and control of the power system networks. On the other hand, the deployment of EVs in the energy market can compensate for the fluctuations of the electric grid. In this context, a literature review on the integration of the renewable energy and the latest feasible solution using EVs with the insight of the promising research gap to be covered up are investigated. Furthermore, the feasibility of the smart V2G system is thoroughly discussed. In this paper, the EVs interactions with the smart grid as the future energy system model are extensively discussed and research gap is revealed for the possible solutions.

Suggested Citation

  • Mwasilu, Francis & Justo, Jackson John & Kim, Eun-Kyung & Do, Ton Duc & Jung, Jin-Woo, 2014. "Electric vehicles and smart grid interaction: A review on vehicle to grid and renewable energy sources integration," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 501-516.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:34:y:2014:i:c:p:501-516
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.03.031

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hernández-Moro, J. & Martínez-Duart, J.M., 2012. "CSP electricity cost evolution and grid parities based on the IEA roadmaps," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 184-192.
    2. Battke, Benedikt & Schmidt, Tobias S. & Grosspietsch, David & Hoffmann, Volker H., 2013. "A review and probabilistic model of lifecycle costs of stationary batteries in multiple applications," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 240-250.
    3. Pillai, Jayakrishnan R. & Heussen, Kai & Østergaard, Poul Alberg, 2011. "Comparative analysis of hourly and dynamic power balancing models for validating future energy scenarios," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 3233-3243.
    4. Justo, Jackson John & Mwasilu, Francis & Lee, Ju & Jung, Jin-Woo, 2013. "AC-microgrids versus DC-microgrids with distributed energy resources: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 387-405.
    5. Richardson, David B., 2013. "Electric vehicles and the electric grid: A review of modeling approaches, Impacts, and renewable energy integration," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 247-254.
    6. Lund, Henrik & Kempton, Willett, 2008. "Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 3578-3587, September.
    7. Qinglai Guo & Yao Wang & Hongbin Sun & Zhengshuo Li & Shujun Xin & Boming Zhang, 2012. "Factor Analysis of the Aggregated Electric Vehicle Load Based on Data Mining," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(6), pages 1-18, June.
    8. Dallinger, David & Gerda, Schubert & Wietschel, Martin, 2013. "Integration of intermittent renewable power supply using grid-connected vehicles – A 2030 case study for California and Germany," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 666-682.
    9. Foley, Aoife & Tyther, Barry & Calnan, Patrick & Ó Gallachóir, Brian, 2013. "Impacts of Electric Vehicle charging under electricity market operations," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 93-102.
    10. Soares M.C. Borba, Bruno & Szklo, Alexandre & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2012. "Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a way to maximize the integration of variable renewable energy in power systems: The case of wind generation in northeastern Brazil," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 469-481.
    11. Green II, Robert C. & Wang, Lingfeng & Alam, Mansoor, 2011. "The impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on distribution networks: A review and outlook," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 544-553, January.
    12. Mullan, Jonathan & Harries, David & Bräunl, Thomas & Whitely, Stephen, 2012. "The technical, economic and commercial viability of the vehicle-to-grid concept," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 394-406.
    13. Mehrdad Ehsani & Milad Falahi & Saeed Lotfifard, 2012. "Vehicle to Grid Services: Potential and Applications," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(10), pages 1-15, October.
    14. Tulpule, Pinak J. & Marano, Vincenzo & Yurkovich, Stephen & Rizzoni, Giorgio, 2013. "Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 323-332.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Yong, Jia Ying & Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K. & Tan, Kang Miao & Mithulananthan, N., 2015. "A review on the state-of-the-art technologies of electric vehicle, its impacts and prospects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 365-385.
    2. Rahman, Imran & Vasant, Pandian M. & Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder & Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M. & Adnan, Nadia, 2016. "Review of recent trends in optimization techniques for plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicle charging infrastructures," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1039-1047.
    3. Szinai, Julia K. & Sheppard, Colin J.R. & Abhyankar, Nikit & Gopal, Anand R., 2020. "Reduced grid operating costs and renewable energy curtailment with electric vehicle charge management," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    4. Hota, Ashish Ranjan & Juvvanapudi, Mahesh & Bajpai, Prabodh, 2014. "Issues and solution approaches in PHEV integration to smart grid," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 217-229.
    5. Verzijlbergh, Remco & Brancucci Martínez-Anido, Carlo & Lukszo, Zofia & de Vries, Laurens, 2014. "Does controlled electric vehicle charging substitute cross-border transmission capacity?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 169-180.
    6. Shaukat, N. & Khan, B. & Ali, S.M. & Mehmood, C.A. & Khan, J. & Farid, U. & Majid, M. & Anwar, S.M. & Jawad, M. & Ullah, Z., 2018. "A survey on electric vehicle transportation within smart grid system," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 1329-1349.
    7. García-Villalobos, J. & Zamora, I. & San Martín, J.I. & Asensio, F.J. & Aperribay, V., 2014. "Plug-in electric vehicles in electric distribution networks: A review of smart charging approaches," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 717-731.
    8. Schwarz, Marius & Auzépy, Quentin & Knoeri, Christof, 2020. "Can electricity pricing leverage electric vehicles and battery storage to integrate high shares of solar photovoltaics?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 277(C).
    9. Shareef, Hussain & Islam, Md. Mainul & Mohamed, Azah, 2016. "A review of the stage-of-the-art charging technologies, placement methodologies, and impacts of electric vehicles," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 403-420.
    10. Schuller, Alexander & Flath, Christoph M. & Gottwalt, Sebastian, 2015. "Quantifying load flexibility of electric vehicles for renewable energy integration," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 335-344.
    11. Shojaabadi, Saeed & Abapour, Saeed & Abapour, Mehdi & Nahavandi, Ali, 2016. "Simultaneous planning of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging stations and wind power generation in distribution networks considering uncertainties," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 237-252.
    12. Li, Ying & Davis, Chris & Lukszo, Zofia & Weijnen, Margot, 2016. "Electric vehicle charging in China’s power system: Energy, economic and environmental trade-offs and policy implications," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 173(C), pages 535-554.
    13. Speidel, Stuart & Bräunl, Thomas, 2014. "Driving and charging patterns of electric vehicles for energy usage," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 97-110.
    14. Romo, R. & Micheloud, O., 2015. "Power quality of actual grids with plug-in electric vehicles in presence of renewables and micro-grids," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 189-200.
    15. Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Kester, Johannes & Noel, Lance & Zarazua de Rubens, Gerardo, 2020. "Actors, business models, and innovation activity systems for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology: A comprehensive review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 131(C).
    16. Bhatti, Abdul Rauf & Salam, Zainal & Aziz, Mohd Junaidi Bin Abdul & Yee, Kong Pui & Ashique, Ratil H., 2016. "Electric vehicles charging using photovoltaic: Status and technological review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 34-47.
    17. Schill, Wolf-Peter & Gerbaulet, Clemens, 2015. "Power System Impacts of Electric Vehicles in Germany: Charging with Coal or Renewables," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 185-196.
    18. Ashique, Ratil H. & Salam, Zainal & Bin Abdul Aziz, Mohd Junaidi & Bhatti, Abdul Rauf, 2017. "Integrated photovoltaic-grid dc fast charging system for electric vehicle: A review of the architecture and control," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1243-1257.
    19. van der Kam, Mart & van Sark, Wilfried, 2015. "Smart charging of electric vehicles with photovoltaic power and vehicle-to-grid technology in a microgrid; a case study," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 152(C), pages 20-30.
    20. Seddig, Katrin & Jochem, Patrick & Fichtner, Wolf, 2017. "Integrating renewable energy sources by electric vehicle fleets under uncertainty," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 2145-2153.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:34:y:2014:i:c:p:501-516. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.