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Sources of emission reductions: Market and policy-stringency effects

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  • Hille, Erik
  • Shahbaz, Muhammad

Abstract

International trade and economic development affect air emissions. Previous studies have decomposed their effects into scale, composition, and technique effects. While the scale and composition effects occur through market responses, the technique effect is a policy-stringency influence through the mix of environmental policies. This study analyzes whether the market or policy-stringency effects are more prominent. Previous studies have been unable to adequately separate the market and policy-stringency effects. To independently measure the technique effect, we use two indicators of policy stringency, i.e. shadow prices of energy and industrial energy prices. These policy stringency measures are treated as endogenous. The effects on six types of air emissions are estimated utilizing a sector-specific, international panel dataset that includes newly industrialized and former transition economies. The empirical results show that the major source of emissions reductions is the policy-stringency effect through carbon-related policies. Pollution offshoring to countries with weaker carbon-related regulation has a minor role in the reduction of air emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Hille, Erik & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2019. "Sources of emission reductions: Market and policy-stringency effects," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 29-43.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:78:y:2019:i:c:p:29-43
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2018.11.006
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    Cited by:

    1. Hille, Erik & Althammer, Wilhelm & Diederich, Henning, 2020. "Environmental regulation and innovation in renewable energy technologies: Does the policy instrument matter?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 153(C).
    2. Huang, Bihong & Xu, Yining, 2019. "Environmental Performance in Asia: Overview, Drivers, and Policy Implications," ADBI Working Papers 990, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nasir, Muhammad Ali & Hille, Erik & Mahalik, Mantu Kumar, 2020. "UK's net-zero carbon emissions target: Investigating the potential role of economic growth, financial development, and R&D expenditures based on historical data (1870–2017)," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 161(C).
    4. Erik Hille & Patrick Möbius, 2019. "Environmental Policy, Innovation, and Productivity Growth: Controlling the Effects of Regulation and Endogeneity," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 73(4), pages 1315-1355, August.
    5. Hille, Erik & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Moosa, Imad, 2019. "The impact of FDI on regional air pollution in the Republic of Korea: A way ahead to achieve the green growth strategy?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 308-326.
    6. Hille, Erik & Möbius, Patrick, 2019. "Do energy prices affect employment? Decomposed international evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 1-21.
    7. Erik Hille & Bernhard Lambernd & Aviral K. Tiwari, 2021. "Any Signs of Green Growth? A Spatial Panel Analysis of Regional Air Pollution in South Korea," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 80(4), pages 719-760, December.
    8. Wu, Yinyin & Yu, Jie & Song, Malin & Chen, Jiandong & Hou, Wenxuan, 2021. "Shadow prices of industrial air pollutant emissions in China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 726-736.
    9. Sun, Xiaohua & Dong, Yan & Wang, Yun & Ren, Junlin, 2022. "Sources of greenhouse gas emission reductions in OECD countries: Composition or technique effects," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 193(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Air pollution; Policy stringency; Pollution offshoring; Energy prices;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • O44 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Environment and Growth
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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