IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/eneeco/v78y2019icp29-43.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Sources of emission reductions: Market and policy-stringency effects

Author

Listed:
  • Hille, Erik
  • Shahbaz, Muhammad

Abstract

International trade and economic development affect air emissions. Previous studies have decomposed their effects into scale, composition, and technique effects. While the scale and composition effects occur through market responses, the technique effect is a policy-stringency influence through the mix of environmental policies. This study analyzes whether the market or policy-stringency effects are more prominent. Previous studies have been unable to adequately separate the market and policy-stringency effects. To independently measure the technique effect, we use two indicators of policy stringency, i.e. shadow prices of energy and industrial energy prices. These policy stringency measures are treated as endogenous. The effects on six types of air emissions are estimated utilizing a sector-specific, international panel dataset that includes newly industrialized and former transition economies. The empirical results show that the major source of emissions reductions is the policy-stringency effect through carbon-related policies. Pollution offshoring to countries with weaker carbon-related regulation has a minor role in the reduction of air emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Hille, Erik & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2019. "Sources of emission reductions: Market and policy-stringency effects," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 29-43.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:78:y:2019:i:c:p:29-43
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2018.11.006
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140988318304468
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.eneco.2018.11.006?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Siebert, Horst, 1985. "Spatial aspects of environmental economics," Handbook of Natural Resource and Energy Economics, in: A. V. Kneese† & J. L. Sweeney (ed.), Handbook of Natural Resource and Energy Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 3, pages 125-164, Elsevier.
    2. Misato Sato & Gregor Singer & Damien Dussaux & Stefania Lovo, 2015. "International and sectoral variation in energy prices 1995-2011: how does it relate to emissions policy stringency?," GRI Working Papers 187, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.
    3. Christoph Böhringer & Jared C. Carbone & Thomas F. Rutherford, 2012. "Efficiency and Equity Implications of Alternative Instruments to Reduce Carbon Leakage," Working Papers V-346-12, University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics, revised Jun 2012.
    4. Sato, Misato & Dechezleprêtre, Antoine, 2015. "Asymmetric industrial energy prices and international trade," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(S1), pages 130-141.
    5. Rose, Andrew K., 2004. "Do WTO members have more liberal trade policy?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 209-235, July.
    6. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    7. Chunlai Chen, 2011. "Foreign Direct Investment in China," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14100, Summer.
    8. M.A. Cole & A.J. Rayner & J.M. Bates, 1998. "Trade Liberalisation and the Environment: The Case of the Uruguay Round," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 337-347, May.
    9. Wilhelm Althammer & Erik Hille, 2016. "Measuring climate policy stringency: a shadow price approach," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 23(4), pages 607-639, August.
    10. Coggins, Jay S. & Swinton, John R., 1996. "The Price of Pollution: A Dual Approach to Valuing SO2Allowances," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 58-72, January.
    11. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Newey, Whitney & Rosen, Harvey S, 1988. "Estimating Vector Autoregressions with Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1371-1395, November.
    12. Burtraw, Dallas & Krupnick, Alan & Palmer, Karen & Paul, Anthony & Toman, Michael & Bloyd, Cary, 2003. "Ancillary benefits of reduced air pollution in the US from moderate greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the electricity sector," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 650-673, May.
    13. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    14. Joseph E. Aldy & William A. Pizer, 2015. "The Competitiveness Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 565-595.
    15. Kamal Saggi, 2002. "Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and International Technology Transfer: A Survey," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 191-235, September.
    16. Paul Lanoie & Jérémy Laurent‐Lucchetti & Nick Johnstone & Stefan Ambec, 2011. "Environmental Policy, Innovation and Performance: New Insights on the Porter Hypothesis," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 803-842, September.
    17. Don Fullerton & Catherine Wolfram, 2012. "The Design and Implementation of US Climate Policy," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number full10-1.
    18. Arik Levinson, 2009. "Technology, International Trade, and Pollution from US Manufacturing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(5), pages 2177-2192, December.
    19. Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Roubaud, David & Farhani, Sahbi, 2018. "How economic growth, renewable electricity and natural resources contribute to CO2 emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 356-367.
    20. James R. MARKUSEN, 2021. "International Externalities And Optimal Tax Structures," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: BROADENING TRADE THEORY Incorporating Market Realities into Traditional Models, chapter 16, pages 341-355, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    21. Ian Parry & Chandara Veung & Dirk Heine, 2015. "How Much Carbon Pricing Is In Countries’ Own Interests? The Critical Role Of Co-Benefits," Climate Change Economics (CCE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 6(04), pages 1-26, November.
    22. Jevan Cherniwchan & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2017. "Trade and the Environment: New Methods, Measurements, and Results," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 9(1), pages 59-85, September.
    23. James Boyce & Manuel Pastor, 2013. "Clearing the air: incorporating air quality and environmental justice into climate policy," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 120(4), pages 801-814, October.
    24. Cole, Matthew A. & Elliott, Robert J. R., 2003. "Determining the trade-environment composition effect: the role of capital, labor and environmental regulations," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 363-383, November.
    25. McAusland, Carol & Millimet, Daniel L., 2013. "Do national borders matter? Intranational trade, international trade, and the environment," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 411-437.
    26. Erik Hille, 2018. "Pollution havens: international empirical evidence using a shadow price measure of climate policy stringency," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 54(3), pages 1137-1171, May.
    27. van Soest, Daan P. & List, John A. & Jeppesen, Tim, 2006. "Shadow prices, environmental stringency, and international competitiveness," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(5), pages 1151-1167, July.
    28. Managi, Shunsuke & Hibiki, Akira & Tsurumi, Tetsuya, 2009. "Does trade openness improve environmental quality?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 346-363, November.
    29. Werner Antweiler & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2001. "Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 877-908, September.
    30. Böhringer, Christoph & Carbone, Jared C. & Rutherford, Thomas F., 2012. "Unilateral climate policy design: Efficiency and equity implications of alternative instruments to reduce carbon leakage," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages 208-217.
    31. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nasir, Muhammad Ali & Roubaud, David, 2018. "Environmental degradation in France: The effects of FDI, financial development, and energy innovations," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 843-857.
    32. Russell W. Pittman, 1981. "Issue in Pollution Control: Interplant Cost Differences and Economies of Scale," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 57(1), pages 1-17.
    33. Bao, Qun & Chen, Yuanyuan & Song, Ligang, 2011. "Foreign direct investment and environmental pollution in China: a simultaneous equations estimation," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(1), pages 71-92, February.
    34. Shunsuke Managi, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and the Environment: Carbon Dioxide for 1960-1999," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 17(1), pages 1-5.
    35. Anni Huhtala & Per-Olov Marklund, 2008. "Stringency of environmental targets in animal agriculture: shedding light on policy with shadow prices," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 35(2), pages 193-217, June.
    36. Erik Hille & Patrick Möbius, 2019. "Environmental Policy, Innovation, and Productivity Growth: Controlling the Effects of Regulation and Endogeneity," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 73(4), pages 1315-1355, August.
    37. Misato Sato & Karsten Neuhoff & Verena Graichen & Katja Schumacher & Felix Matthes, 2015. "Sectors Under Scrutiny: Evaluation of Indicators to Assess the Risk of Carbon Leakage in the UK and Germany," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 60(1), pages 99-124, January.
    38. Hille, Erik & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Moosa, Imad, 2019. "The impact of FDI on regional air pollution in the Republic of Korea: A way ahead to achieve the green growth strategy?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 308-326.
    39. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 2005. "Is Trade Good or Bad for the Environment? Sorting Out the Causality," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 85-91, February.
    40. Michael Schymura & Andreas Löschel, 2012. "Trade and the Environment: An Application of the WIOD Database," EcoMod2012 3948, EcoMod.
    41. Geoffrey Barrows & Helene Ollivier, 2016. "Emission intensity and firm dynamics: reallocation, product mix, and technology in India," GRI Working Papers 245, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.
    42. Yang, Boqiong & Brosig, Stephan & Chen, Jianguo, 2013. "Environmental Impact of Foreign vs. Domestic Capital Investment in China," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 245-271.
    43. Fullerton, Don & Wolfram, Catherine D. (ed.), 2012. "The Design and Implementation of US Climate Policy," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226269146.
    44. Claire Brunel & Arik Levinson, 2016. "Measuring the Stringency of Environmental Regulations," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 10(1), pages 47-67.
    45. Adam Jaffe & Richard Newell & Robert Stavins, 2002. "Environmental Policy and Technological Change," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 22(1), pages 41-70, June.
    46. Kneller, Richard & Manderson, Edward, 2012. "Environmental regulations and innovation activity in UK manufacturing industries," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 211-235.
    47. Claire Brunel, 2017. "Pollution Offshoring and Emission Reductions in EU and US Manufacturing," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 68(3), pages 621-641, November.
    48. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    49. Cole, Matthew A., 2006. "Does trade liberalization increase national energy use?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 108-112, July.
    50. Matilde Bombardini & Bingjing Li, 2016. "Trade, Pollution and Mortality in China," NBER Working Papers 22804, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    51. Napolitano, Sam & Schreifels, Jeremy & Stevens, Gabrielle & Witt, Maggie & LaCount, Melanie & Forte, Reynaldo & Smith, Kenon, 2007. "The U.S. Acid Rain Program: Key Insights from the Design, Operation, and Assessment of a Cap-and-Trade Program," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(7), pages 47-58.
    52. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
    53. Ian A. MacKenzie, 2017. "Rent creation and rent seeking in environmental policy," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 171(1), pages 145-166, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hille, Erik & Althammer, Wilhelm & Diederich, Henning, 2020. "Environmental regulation and innovation in renewable energy technologies: Does the policy instrument matter?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 153(C).
    2. Huang, Bihong & Xu, Yining, 2019. "Environmental Performance in Asia: Overview, Drivers, and Policy Implications," ADBI Working Papers 990, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nasir, Muhammad Ali & Hille, Erik & Mahalik, Mantu Kumar, 2020. "UK's net-zero carbon emissions target: Investigating the potential role of economic growth, financial development, and R&D expenditures based on historical data (1870–2017)," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 161(C).
    4. Erik Hille & Patrick Möbius, 2019. "Environmental Policy, Innovation, and Productivity Growth: Controlling the Effects of Regulation and Endogeneity," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 73(4), pages 1315-1355, August.
    5. Hille, Erik & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Moosa, Imad, 2019. "The impact of FDI on regional air pollution in the Republic of Korea: A way ahead to achieve the green growth strategy?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 308-326.
    6. Chai, Shanglei & Yang, Xiaoli & Zhang, Zhen & Abedin, Mohammad Zoynul & Lucey, Brian, 2022. "Regional imbalances of market efficiency in China’s pilot emission trading schemes (ETS): A multifractal perspective," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).
    7. Arjan Trinks & Erik Hille, 2023. "Carbon costs and industrial firm performance: Evidence from international microdata," CPB Discussion Paper 445, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    8. Hille, Erik & Möbius, Patrick, 2019. "Do energy prices affect employment? Decomposed international evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 1-21.
    9. Erik Hille & Bernhard Lambernd & Aviral K. Tiwari, 2021. "Any Signs of Green Growth? A Spatial Panel Analysis of Regional Air Pollution in South Korea," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 80(4), pages 719-760, December.
    10. Wu, Yinyin & Yu, Jie & Song, Malin & Chen, Jiandong & Hou, Wenxuan, 2021. "Shadow prices of industrial air pollutant emissions in China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 726-736.
    11. Sun, Xiaohua & Dong, Yan & Wang, Yun & Ren, Junlin, 2022. "Sources of greenhouse gas emission reductions in OECD countries: Composition or technique effects," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 193(C).
    12. Korkmaz, Özge, 2022. "What is the role of the rents in energy connection with economic growth for China and the United States?," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    13. Jiandong Chen & Ming Gao & Shulei Cheng & Yiyin Xu & Malin Song & Yu Liu & Wenxuan Hou & Shuhong Wang, 2022. "Evaluation and drivers of global low-carbon economies based on satellite data," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 9(1), pages 1-12, December.
    14. Erik Hille & Bernhard Lambernd, 2022. "Has Korean growth become greener? Spatial econometric evidence for energy use and renewable energy," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 313(1), pages 461-494, June.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Erik Hille, 2018. "Pollution havens: international empirical evidence using a shadow price measure of climate policy stringency," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 54(3), pages 1137-1171, May.
    2. Erik Hille & Patrick Möbius, 2019. "Environmental Policy, Innovation, and Productivity Growth: Controlling the Effects of Regulation and Endogeneity," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 73(4), pages 1315-1355, August.
    3. Hille, Erik & Möbius, Patrick, 2019. "Do energy prices affect employment? Decomposed international evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 1-21.
    4. Zakaria Sorgho & Joe Tharakan, 2022. "Do PTAs with Environmental Provisions Reduce GHG Emissions? Distinguishing the Role of Climate-Related Provisions," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 83(3), pages 709-732, November.
    5. Erik Hille & Bernhard Lambernd, 2022. "Has Korean growth become greener? Spatial econometric evidence for energy use and renewable energy," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 313(1), pages 461-494, June.
    6. Zakaria Sorgho & Tharakan Joe, 2020. "Do PTAs with environmental provisions reduce emissions? Assessing the effectiveness of climate-related provisions?," Working Papers hal-03004353, HAL.
    7. Mansor H. Ibrahim, 2018. "Trade–finance complementarity and carbon emission intensity: panel evidence from middle-income countries," Environment Systems and Decisions, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 489-500, December.
    8. Sorgho, Zakaria & Tharakan, Joe, 2022. "Do PTAs with environmental provisions reduce GHG emissions? Distinguishing the effectiveness of climate-related provisions," LIDAM Discussion Papers CORE 2022012, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    9. Erik Hille & Bernhard Lambernd & Aviral K. Tiwari, 2021. "Any Signs of Green Growth? A Spatial Panel Analysis of Regional Air Pollution in South Korea," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 80(4), pages 719-760, December.
    10. LaPlue, Lawrence D., 2019. "The environmental effects of trade within and across sectors," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 118-139.
    11. Hille, Erik & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Moosa, Imad, 2019. "The impact of FDI on regional air pollution in the Republic of Korea: A way ahead to achieve the green growth strategy?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 308-326.
    12. Wilhelm Althammer & Erik Hille, 2016. "Measuring climate policy stringency: a shadow price approach," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 23(4), pages 607-639, August.
    13. Löschel, Andreas & Pothen, Frank & Schymura, Michael, 2015. "Peeling the onion: Analyzing aggregate, national and sectoral energy intensity in the European Union," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(S1), pages 63-75.
    14. Natalia Zugravu-Soilita, 2019. "Trade in Environmental Goods and Air Pollution: A Mediation Analysis to Estimate Total, Direct and Indirect Effects," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 74(3), pages 1125-1162, November.
    15. Mansor H. Ibrahim & Siong Hook Law, 2016. "Institutional Quality and CO 2 Emission–Trade Relations: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 84(2), pages 323-340, June.
    16. Banerjee, Soumendra Nath & Roy, Jayjit & Yasar, Mahmut, 2021. "Exporting and pollution abatement expenditure: Evidence from firm-level data," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 105(C).
    17. Natalia Zugravu-Soilita, 2017. "Trade in Environmental Goods: Empirical Exploration of Direct and Indirect Effects on Pollution by Country’s Trade Status," Working Papers 2017.56, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    18. Michael Hübler & Alexander Glas, 2014. "The Energy-Bias of North–South Technology Spillovers: A Global, Bilateral, Bisectoral Trade Analysis," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 58(1), pages 59-89, May.
    19. Njindan Iyke, Bernard & Ho, Sin-Yu, 2017. "Trade Openness and Carbon Emissions: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe," MPRA Paper 80399, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Natalia Zugravu-Soilita, 2018. "The impact of trade in environmental goods on pollution: what are we learning from the transition economies’ experience?," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 20(4), pages 785-827, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Air pollution; Policy stringency; Pollution offshoring; Energy prices;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • O44 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Environment and Growth
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:78:y:2019:i:c:p:29-43. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.