IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecosys/v37y2013i2p155-170.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Capital mobility in the Caucasus

Author

Listed:
  • Jamilov, Rustam

Abstract

This paper examines the degree of capital mobility in the countries of the Caucasus. I estimate a simple model developed in the seminal paper by Feldstein and Horioka (1980). I construct a panel of 6 countries of the Caucasus – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey – and employ a panel cointegration approach. To that end, I make use of the Dynamic OLS (DOLS), Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS), and Pooled Mean Group (PMG) techniques for heterogeneous panels. Preliminary cross-dependency tests reject the presence of cross-sectional dependence. Panel unit root and cointegration tests confirm that investment and saving are non-stationary and cointegrated. The estimated long-run saving retention ratios using DOLS, FMOLS, and PMG are 0.90, 0.73, and 0.83, respectively. These results suggest that capital mobility in the Caucasus is very low. I put these findings in an international context and confirm that the Caucasus is considerably financially restrained compared to other regions. I also look at the country ratings of the Index of Economic Freedom (IEF) and find that my results work well in predicting the IEF rank. Finally, I discuss some implications for the region's policy-relevant issues such as financial integration, human capital mobility, cross-border trading, fiscal and monetary policy, solvency management, responsive consumption smoothing, and recession resistance.

Suggested Citation

  • Jamilov, Rustam, 2013. "Capital mobility in the Caucasus," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 155-170.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecosys:v:37:y:2013:i:2:p:155-170
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecosys.2012.12.004
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0939362513000368
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Rose, Andrew K. & Yellen, Janet L., 1989. "Is there a J-curve?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 53-68, July.
    2. Suzanne McCoskey & Chihwa Kao, 1998. "A residual-based test of the null of cointegration in panel data," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 57-84.
    3. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 2001. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 339-412 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Aizenman, Joshua & Ito, Hiro, 2012. "Trilemma policy convergence patterns and output volatility," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 269-285.
    5. Tesar, Linda L., 1991. "Savings, investment and international capital flows," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1-2), pages 55-78, August.
    6. Ferda Halicioglu, 2008. "The J-curve dynamics of Turkey: an application of ARDL model," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(18), pages 2423-2429.
    7. Martin Feldstein, 1991. "Domestic Saving and International Capital Movements in the Long Run and the Short Run," NBER Chapters,in: International Volatility and Economic Growth: The First Ten Years of The International Seminar on Macroeconomics, pages 331-353 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Artatrana Ratha, 2007. "The S-curve Dynamics of US Bilateral Trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(2), pages 430-439, May.
    9. Coakley, Jerry & Kulasi, Farida & Smith, Ron, 1996. "Current Account Solvency and the Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(436), pages 620-627, May.
    10. Lawrence H. Summers, 1988. "Tax Policy and International Competitiveness," NBER Chapters,in: International Aspects of Fiscal Policies, pages 349-386 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Barro, Robert J & Mankiw, N Gregory & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1995. "Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(1), pages 103-115, March.
    12. Pedroni, Peter, 2004. "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic And Finite Sample Properties Of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application To The Ppp Hypothesis," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(03), pages 597-625, June.
    13. Guillermo A. Calvo & Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1993. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(1), pages 108-151, March.
    14. Coakley, Jerry & Hasan, Farida & Smith, Ron, 1999. "Saving, Investment, and Capital Mobility in LDCs," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(4), pages 632-640, November.
    15. Tesar, Linda L., 1993. "International risk-sharing and non-traded goods," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1-2), pages 69-89, August.
    16. Montiel, Peter J, 1994. "Capital Mobility in Developing Countries: Some Measurement Issues and Empirical Estimates," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(3), pages 311-350, September.
    17. Sarno, Lucio & Taylor, Mark P, 1998. "Savings-Investment Correlations: Transitory versus Permanent," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 66(0), pages 17-38, Supplemen.
    18. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
    19. Joakim Westerlund, 2007. "Testing for Error Correction in Panel Data," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(6), pages 709-748, December.
    20. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1986. "Capital mobility in the world economy: Theory and measurement," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 55-103, January.
    21. T. S. Breusch & A. R. Pagan, 1980. "The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 239-253.
    22. Sergio Da Silva & Guilherme Moura, 2005. "Is There a Brazilian J-Curve?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 6(10), pages 1-17.
    23. Kim, Hongkee & Oh, Keun-Yeob & Jeong, Chan-Woo, 2005. "Panel cointegration results on international capital mobility in Asian economies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 71-82, February.
    24. Reisen, Helmut & Yeches, Helene, 1993. "Time-varying estimates on the openness of the capital account in Korea and Taiwan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 285-305, August.
    25. Pesaran, M.H., 2004. "‘General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels’," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0435, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    26. Murphy, Robert G., 1984. "Capital mobility and the relationship between saving and investment rates in OECD countries," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 327-342, December.
    27. Coakley, Jerry & Kulasi, Farida & Smith, Ron, 1998. "The Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle and Capital Mobility: A Review," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 3(2), pages 169-188, April.
    28. Martin Feldstein, 1994. "Tax policy and international capital flows," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 130(4), pages 675-697, December.
    29. Gupta-Kapoor Anju & Ramakrishnan Uma, 1999. "Is There A J-Curve? A New Estimation for Japan," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 71-79.
    30. Feldstein, Martin & Horioka, Charles, 1980. "Domestic Saving and International Capital Flows," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(358), pages 314-329, June.
    31. Miller, Stephen M., 1988. "Are saving and investment co-integrated?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 31-34.
    32. Afxentiou, Panos & Serletis, Apostolos, 1993. "International Capital Mobility and the Long-Run Investrnent and Saving in Canada," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 46(2-3), pages 147-167.
    33. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Janardhanan Alse, 1994. "Short-Run versus Long-Run Effects of Devaluation: Error-Correction Modeling and Cointegration," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 453-464, Fall.
    34. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Charikleia Economidou & Gour Goswami, 2006. "Bilateral J-curve between the UK vis-a-vis her major trading partners," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 879-888.
    35. Apergis, Nicholas & Tsoumas, Chris, 2009. "A survey of the Feldstein-Horioka puzzle: What has been done and where we stand," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 64-76, June.
    36. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Chakrabarti, Avik, 2005. "Openness, size, and the saving-investment relationship," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 283-293, September.
    37. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    38. Peter Pedroni, 2007. "Social capital, barriers to production and capital shares: implications for the importance of parameter heterogeneity from a nonstationary panel approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 429-451.
    39. Jansen, W. Jos, 2000. "International capital mobility: evidence from panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 507-511, August.
    40. Peter Pedroni, 2000. "Fully Modified OLS for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels," Department of Economics Working Papers 2000-03, Department of Economics, Williams College.
    41. Levich, Richard M., 1985. "Empirical studies of exchange rates: Price behavior, rate determination and market efficiency," Handbook of International Economics,in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 19, pages 979-1040 Elsevier.
    42. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    43. Bangake, Chrysost & Eggoh, Jude C., 2011. "The Feldstein-Horioka puzzle in African countries: A panel cointegration analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 939-947, May.
    44. Martin Feldstein & Philippe Bacchetta, 1991. "National Saving and International Investment," NBER Chapters,in: National Saving and Economic Performance, pages 201-226 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    45. Kim, Sunghyun Henry, 2001. "The saving-investment correlation puzzle is still a puzzle," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(7), pages 1017-1034, December.
    46. Amirkhalkhali, Saleh & Dar, Atul A, 1993. "Testing for Capital Mobility: A Random Coefficients Approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 523-541.
    47. Haque, Nadeem U. & Montiel, Peter, 1991. "Capital mobility in developing countries: Some empirical tests," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(10), pages 1391-1398, October.
    48. Pedroni, Peter, 1999. " Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-670, Special I.
    49. Jerry Coakley & Ana-Maria Fuertes & Fabio Spagnolo, 2004. "Is the Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle History?," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(5), pages 569-590, September.
    50. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
    51. Hamid Faruqee, 1992. "Dynamic Capital Mobility in Pacific Basin Developing Countries: Estimation and Policy Implications," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(3), pages 706-717, September.
    52. N. Vasudeva Murthy, 2009. "The Feldstein–Horioka puzzle in Latin American and Caribbean countries: a panel cointegration analysis," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 33(2), pages 176-188, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:rujoec:v:1:y:2015:i:4:p:386-403 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Rustam Jamilov, 2014. "Export diversification and the S-curve effect in a resource-rich state: evidence from Azerbaijan," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 135-154, May.
    3. repec:psl:pslqrr:2017:24 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:agr:journl:v:xxiv:y:2017:i:2(611):p:171-186 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Peguero, Anadel G. & Cruz-Rodríguez, Alexis, 2016. "Condición Marshall-Lerner y el efecto Curva J: Evidencias para la República Dominicana
      [Marshall-Lerner Condition and J-Curve Effect: Evidence for the Dominican Republic]
      ," MPRA Paper 71535, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Jamilov, Rustam, 2012. "Channels of Monetary Transmission in the CIS," MPRA Paper 39568, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Jamilov, Rustam, 2012. "Is There a J-curve for Azerbaijan? Evidence from Industry-Level Analysis," MPRA Paper 39370, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Ketenci, Natalya, 2015. "Capital mobility in Russia," Russian Journal of Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 386-403.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Capital mobility; Saving-investment relationship; Panel cointegration;

    JEL classification:

    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecosys:v:37:y:2013:i:2:p:155-170. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/osteide.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.