IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecolec/v89y2013icp101-114.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Environmental performance, innovation and spillovers. Evidence from a regional NAMEA

Author

Listed:
  • Costantini, Valeria
  • Mazzanti, Massimiliano
  • Montini, Anna

Abstract

The achievement of positive Environmental Performance (EP) at national level could strongly depend on differences in regional features, namely productive specialization, regulation stringency and innovation capabilities of both public institutions and the private business sector. We present empirical evidence for a newly released NAMEA available for the 20 Italian regions in order to demonstrate the role played by sector innovation, regional spillovers and environmental policies. The Italian North–south divide regarding industrial development and productive specialization patterns seems to affect regional EP. Nonetheless, such a pattern presents some interesting differences, revealing a more heterogeneous distribution of emissions which may reflect the role of other driving forces. In particular, agglomerative effects seem to play a major role and the EP of neighboring regions influences the regional internal EP. This means that together with the spatial concentration of specific sectors into restricted areas, there is also some convergence in the adoption of cleaner or dirtier production process techniques. Finally, interregional technological spillovers are more important than sector internal innovation for improving EP, revealing that accounting for spatial features and linking ecological economics to regional economics are crucial in understanding the key drivers of EP.

Suggested Citation

  • Costantini, Valeria & Mazzanti, Massimiliano & Montini, Anna, 2013. "Environmental performance, innovation and spillovers. Evidence from a regional NAMEA," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 101-114.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:89:y:2013:i:c:p:101-114
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.01.026
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000499
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.01.026?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Giulio Cainelli & Donato Iacobucci & Enrica Morganti, 2006. "Spatial agglomeration and business groups: New evidence from Italian industrial districts," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(5), pages 507-518.
    2. Valeria Costantini & Chiara Martini, 2010. "A Modified Environmental Kuznets Curve for sustainable development assessment using panel data," International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 10(1/2), pages 84-122.
    3. Sharon Belenzon & Tomer Berkovitz, 2010. "Innovation in Business Groups," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(3), pages 519-535, March.
    4. Susanto Basu & David N. Weil, 1998. "Appropriate Technology and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 113(4), pages 1025-1054.
    5. Anastasios Xepapadeas & Efthymia Kyriakopoulou, 2009. "Environmental Policy, Spatial Spillovers and the Emergence of Economic Agglomerations," Working Papers 2009.70, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    6. Nicholas Bloom & Mark Schankerman & John Van Reenen, 2013. "Identifying Technology Spillovers and Product Market Rivalry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(4), pages 1347-1393, July.
    7. Gambardella, Alfonso & Giuri, Paola & Luzzi, Alessandra, 2007. "The market for patents in Europe," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1163-1183, October.
    8. Nick Johnstone & Ivan Hačič & Margarita Kalamova, 2010. "Environmental Policy Characteristics and Technological Innovation," Economia politica, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 277-302.
    9. Dechezlepretre, Antoine & Glachant, Matthieu & Hascic, Ivan & Johnstone, Nick & Meniere, Yann, 2009. "Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data," Sustainable Development Papers 54361, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    10. Nick Johnstone & Ivan Haščič & Julie Poirier & Marion Hemar & Christian Michel, 2012. "Environmental policy stringency and technological innovation: evidence from survey data and patent counts," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(17), pages 2157-2170, June.
    11. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson, 1993. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 108(3), pages 577-598.
    12. Franco Malerba, 2006. "Innovation and the evolution of industries," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 3-23, April.
    13. Fabio Fiorillo & Agnese Sacchi, 2011. "Free-riding or Internalizing? An Opportunistic View on Decentralization versus Centralization," CESifo Working Paper Series 3328, CESifo.
    14. York, Richard & Rosa, Eugene A. & Dietz, Thomas, 2003. "STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 351-365, October.
    15. Costantini, Valeria & Crespi, Francesco, 2008. "Environmental regulation and the export dynamics of energy technologies," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 447-460, June.
    16. Nick Johnstone & Ivan Haščič & David Popp, 2010. "Renewable Energy Policies and Technological Innovation: Evidence Based on Patent Counts," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 45(1), pages 133-155, January.
    17. repec:fth:harver:1473 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    19. Ron Boschma & Simona Iammarino, 2009. "Related Variety, Trade Linkages, and Regional Growth in Italy," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(3), pages 289-311, July.
    20. Paul Lanoie & Jérémy Laurent‐Lucchetti & Nick Johnstone & Stefan Ambec, 2011. "Environmental Policy, Innovation and Performance: New Insights on the Porter Hypothesis," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 803-842, September.
    21. Cole, Matthew A. & Elliott, Robert J.R. & Shimamoto, Kenichi, 2005. "Industrial characteristics, environmental regulations and air pollution: an analysis of the UK manufacturing sector," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 121-143, July.
    22. Esteban-Marquillas, J. M., 1972. "I. A reinterpretation of shift-share analysis," Regional and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 249-255, October.
    23. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Anna Montini & Roberto Zoboli, 2007. "Economic Dynamics, Emission Trends and the EKC Hypothesis New Evidence Using NAMEA and Provincial Panel Data for Italy," Working Papers 2007.24, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    24. Giulio Cainelli & Massimiliano Mazzanti & Sandro Montresor, 2012. "Environmental Innovations, Local Networks and Internationalization," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(8), pages 697-734, November.
    25. B. Los & B. Verspagen, 2007. "Technology Spillovers and their Impact on Productivity," Chapters, in: Horst Hanusch & Andreas Pyka (ed.), Elgar Companion to Neo-Schumpeterian Economics, chapter 35, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    26. Elena Cefis & Stephanie Rosenkranz & Utz Weitzel, 2009. "Effects of coordinated strategies on product and process R&D," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 96(3), pages 193-222, April.
    27. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 287-343, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    28. Quatraro, Francesco, 2010. "Knowledge coherence, variety and economic growth: Manufacturing evidence from Italian regions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 1289-1302, December.
    29. Cristiano Antonelli & Alessandra Colombelli, 2011. "The generation and exploitation of technological change: market value and total factor productivity," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 36(4), pages 353-382, August.
    30. Mark de Haan & Steven J. Keuning, 1996. "Taking The Environment Into Account: The Namea Approach," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(2), pages 131-148, June.
    31. Zoltan J. Acs & Luc Anselin & Attila Varga, 2008. "Patents and Innovation Counts as Measures of Regional Production of New Knowledge," Chapters, in: Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy, chapter 11, pages 135-151, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    32. Francesco Brioschi & Maria Sole Brioschi & Giulio Cainelli, 2002. "From the industrial district to the district group: An insight into the evolution of capitalism in italy1," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(9), pages 1037-1052.
    33. Michele Sansoni & Elisa Bonazzi & Malgorzata Goralczyk & Peter J. Stauvermann, 2010. "RAMEA: how to support regional policies towards sustainable development," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 201-210.
    34. Adriaan Van Stel & Henry Nieuwenhuijsen, 2004. "Knowledge Spillovers and Economic Growth: An Analysis Using Data of Dutch Regions in the Period 1987-1995," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 393-407.
    35. Rutger Hoekstra & Jeroen C. J. M. van den Bergh, 2006. "The Impact of Structural Change on Physical Flows in the Economy: Forecasting and Backcasting Using Structural Decomposition Analysis," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 82(4), pages 582-601.
    36. Bottazzi, Laura & Peri, Giovanni, 2003. "Innovation and spillovers in regions: Evidence from European patent data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 687-710, August.
    37. Maddison, David, 2006. "Environmental Kuznets curves: A spatial econometric approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 218-230, March.
    38. Jaffe, Adam B. & Newell, Richard G. & Stavins, Robert N., 2005. "A tale of two market failures: Technology and environmental policy," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2-3), pages 164-174, August.
    39. Farzin, Y. Hossein & Bond, Craig A., 2006. "Democracy and environmental quality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 213-235, October.
    40. Dasgupta, Susmita & Hamilton, Kirk & Pandey, Kiran D. & Wheeler, David, 2006. "Environment During growth: Accounting for governance and vulnerability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1597-1611, September.
    41. Los, Bart & Timmer, Marcel P., 2005. "The 'appropriate technology' explanation of productivity growth differentials: An empirical approach," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 517-531, August.
    42. Cristiano Antonelli & Pier Paolo Patrucco & Francesco Quatraro, 2011. "Productivity Growth and Pecuniary Knowledge Externalities: An Empirical Analysis of Agglomeration Economies in European Regions," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 87(1), pages 23-50, January.
    43. Pier P. Saviotti & Bart Nooteboom (ed.), 2000. "Technology and Knowledge," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 1920.
    44. Marin, Giovanni & Mazzanti, Massimiliano & Montini, Anna, 2012. "Linking NAMEA and Input output for ‘consumption vs. production perspective’ analyses," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 71-84.
    45. Yann Ménière & Antoine Dechezleprêtre & Matthieu Glachant & Ivan Hascic & N. Johnstone, 2011. "Invention and transfer of climate change mitigation technologies: a study drawing on patent data," Post-Print hal-00869795, HAL.
    46. Antoine Dechezleprêtre & Matthieu Glachant & Ivan Haščič & Nick Johnstone & Yann Ménière, 2011. "Invention and Transfer of Climate Change--Mitigation Technologies: A Global Analysis," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(1), pages 109-130, Winter.
    47. Koen Frenken & Frank Van Oort & Thijs Verburg, 2007. "Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Regional Economic Growth," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 685-697.
    48. Andreoni, James & Levinson, Arik, 2001. "The simple analytics of the environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 269-286, May.
    49. Giulio Cainelli, 2008. "Spatial Agglomeration, Technological Innovations, and Firm Productivity: Evidence from Italian Industrial Districts," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(3), pages 414-435, September.
    50. Fabio Fiorillo & Agnese Sacchi, 2012. "On Local Environmental Protection," EuroEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 5(31), pages 28-42, December.
    51. Mazzanti, Massimiliano & Zoboli, Roberto, 2009. "Environmental efficiency and labour productivity: Trade-off or joint dynamics? A theoretical investigation and empirical evidence from Italy using NAMEA," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(4), pages 1182-1194, February.
    52. Gerben Panne, 2004. "Agglomeration externalities: Marshall versus Jacobs," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 14(5), pages 593-604, December.
    53. Vaze, Prashant, 1999. "A NAMEA for the UK," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 99-121, January.
    54. Keuning, Steven J. & van Dalen, Jan & de Haan, Mark, 1999. "The Netherlands' NAMEA; presentation, usage and future extensions," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 15-37, January.
    55. Esteban, J., 2000. "Regional convergence in Europe and the industry mix: a shift-share analysis," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 353-364, May.
    56. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-596, September.
    57. Michele Costa & Stefano Iezzi, 2004. "Technology spillover and regional convergence process: a statistical analysis of the Italian case," Statistical Methods & Applications, Springer;Società Italiana di Statistica, vol. 13(3), pages 375-398, December.
    58. Ike, Toshihiro, 1999. "A Japanese NAMEA," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 123-149, January.
    59. Cole, Matthew A., 2004. "Trade, the pollution haven hypothesis and the environmental Kuznets curve: examining the linkages," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 71-81, January.
    60. Grubler, Arnulf & Nakicenovic, Nebojsa & Victor, David G., 1999. "Dynamics of energy technologies and global change," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 247-280, May.
    61. de Haan, Mark & Keuning, Steven J, 1996. "Taking the Environment into Account: The NAMEA Approach," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(2), pages 131-148, June.
    62. Soumyananda Dinda, 2009. "Technological progress towards sustainable development," International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 9(1/2), pages 145-150.
    63. Eckhardt Bode, 2004. "The spatial pattern of localized R&D spillovers: an empirical investigation for Germany," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(1), pages 43-64, January.
    64. Kenneth B. Medlock III & Ronald Soligo, 2001. "Economic Development and End-Use Energy Demand," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 77-105.
    65. Cainelli, Giulio & Mancinelli, Susanna & Mazzanti, Massimiliano, 2007. "Social capital and innovation dynamics in district-based local systems," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 932-948, December.
    66. Michael E. Porter & Claas van der Linde, 1995. "Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 97-118, Fall.
    67. Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 2000. "Knowledge, Innovation Activities and Industrial Evolution," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press and the Associazione ICC, vol. 9(2), pages 289-313, June.
    68. Nick Johnstone & Ivan Haščič & Margarita Kalamova, 2010. "Environmental Policy Design Characteristics and Technological Innovation: Evidence from Patent Data," OECD Environment Working Papers 16, OECD Publishing.
    69. Steenge, Albert E., 1999. "Input-output theory and institutional aspects of environmental policy," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 161-176, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ghisetti, Claudia & Quatraro, Francesco, 2013. "Beyond inducement in climate change: Does environmental performance spur environmental technologies? A regional analysis of cross-sectoral differences," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 99-113.
    2. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Valeria Costantini & Susanna Mancinelli & Massimilano Corradini, 2011. "Environmental and Innovation Performance in a Dynamic Impure Public Good Framework," Working Papers 201117, University of Ferrara, Department of Economics.
    3. Corradini, Massimiliano & Costantini, Valeria & Mancinelli, Susanna & Mazzanti, Massimiliano, 2014. "Unveiling the dynamic relation between R&D and emission abatement," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 48-59.
    4. repec:hal:wpaper:hal-00860045 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Giovanni Marin & Massimiliano Mazzanti, 2013. "The evolution of environmental and labor productivity dynamics," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 357-399, April.
    6. Claudia Ghisetti & Francesco Quatraro, 2013. "Beyond inducement in climate change: Does environmental performance spur environmental technologies?," Post-Print hal-00860045, HAL.
    7. Quatraro, Francesco & Scandura, Alessandra, 2019. "Academic Inventors and the Antecedents of Green Technologies. A Regional Analysis of Italian Patent Data," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 247-263.
    8. Claudia Ghisetti & Francesco Quatraro, 2013. "Beyond the Inducement in Climate Change: Do Environmental Performances Spur Enrivornmental Technologies? A Regional Analysis of Cross-Sectoral Differences," Working Papers 2013112, University of Ferrara, Department of Economics.
    9. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Giovanni Marin & Susanna Mancinelli & Francesco Nicolli, 2015. "Carbon dioxide reducing environmental innovations, sector upstream/downstream integration and policy: evidence from the EU," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 42(4), pages 709-735, November.
    10. Costantini, Valeria & Liberati, Paolo, 2014. "Technology transfer, institutions and development," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 26-48.
    11. Orsatti, Gianluca & Quatraro, Francesco & Pezzoni, Michele, 2020. "The antecedents of green technologies: The role of team-level recombinant capabilities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(3).
    12. Costantini, Valeria & Mazzanti, Massimiliano, 2012. "On the green and innovative side of trade competitiveness? The impact of environmental policies and innovation on EU exports," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 132-153.
    13. Marin, Giovanni & Mazzanti, Massimiliano, 2009. "Emissions Trends, Labour Productivity Dynamics and Time-Related Events - Sector Heterogeneous Analyses of Decoupling/Recoupling on a 1990-2006 NAMEA," MPRA Paper 20087, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Fabrizi, Andrea & Guarini, Giulio & Meliciani, Valentina, 2018. "Green patents, regulatory policies and research network policies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(6), pages 1018-1031.
    15. Grafström, Jonas & Poudineh, Rahmat, 2023. "No evidence of counteracting policy effects on European solar power invention and diffusion," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C).
    16. Gilli, Marianna & Mancinelli, Susanna & Mazzanti, Massimiliano, 2014. "Innovation complementarity and environmental productivity effects: Reality or delusion? Evidence from the EU," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 56-67.
    17. Claudia Ghisetti & Francesco Quatraro, 2014. "Is green knowledge improving environmental productivity? Sectoral Evidence from Italian Regions," SEEDS Working Papers 1014, SEEDS, Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies, revised May 2014.
    18. Herman, Kyle S. & Xiang, Jun, 2019. "Induced innovation in clean energy technologies from foreign environmental policy stringency?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 198-207.
    19. Ghisetti, Claudia & Marzucchi, Alberto & Montresor, Sandro, 2015. "The open eco-innovation mode. An empirical investigation of eleven European countries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(5), pages 1080-1093.
    20. Felix Groba & Barbara Breitschopf, 2013. "Impact of Renewable Energy Policy and Use on Innovation: A Literature Review," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1318, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    21. Barbieri, Nicolò, 2015. "Investigating the impacts of technological position and European environmental regulation on green automotive patent activity," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 140-152.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental performance; Innovation; Regional spillovers; Regional NAMEA;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q55 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Technological Innovation
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • R15 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Econometric and Input-Output Models; Other Methods

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:89:y:2013:i:c:p:101-114. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.