Being green and export intensity of SMEs: The moderating influence of perceived uncertainty
Although the literature has already begun to look at the relationship between pursuing an environmental strategy and undertaking export activities, studies so far have focused on large multinationals rather than on small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Yet SMEs account for around half of the GDP in both the US and the EU, and are responsible worldwide for 60% of carbon emissions. Moreover, the literature until now has paid very little attention to the influence that uncertainty has on the relationship between international trade and environmental strategies. The authors tackle this relationship here. Using direct interviews with the CEOs of 145 export firms operating in Spain's food industry, the results show that a proactive environmental strategy is positively related to a company's export performance. In addition, the authors also find that general uncertainty imposes a moderating effect on the relationship between proactive environmental strategies and export intensity for SMEs. The final results suggest some appealing differences in the role of perceived uncertainty for SMEs and large firms.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Haahti, Antti & Madupu, Vivekananda & Yavas, Ugur & Babakus, Emin, 2005. "Cooperative strategy, knowledge intensity and export performance of small and medium sized enterprises," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 124-138, May.
- Petra Christmann & Glen Taylor, 2001. "Globalization and the Environment: Determinants of Firm Self-Regulation in China," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(3), pages 439-458, September.
- William Q. Judge, 1998. "Performance Implications of Incorporating Natural Environmental Issues into the Strategic Planning Process: An Empirical Assessment," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(2), pages 241-262, 03.
- Javalgi, Rajshekhar G. & White, D. Steven & Lee, Oscar, 2000. "Firm Characteristics Influencing Export Propensity: An Empirical Investigation by Industry Type," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 217-228, March.
- C Zhang & S T Cavusgil & A S Roath, 2003. "Manufacturer governance of foreign distributor relationships: do relational norms enhance competitiveness in the export market?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 34(6), pages 550-566, November.
- Piercy, Nigel F & Kaleka, Anna & Katsikeas, Constantine S, 1998. "Sources of competitive advantage in high performing exporting companies," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 378-393, January.
- Gregory, Robin & Wellman, Katharine, 2001. "Bringing stakeholder values into environmental policy choices: a community-based estuary case study," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 37-52, October.
- Leonidas C Leonidou & Constatine S Katsikeas, 1996. "The Export Development Process: An Integrative Review of Empirical Models," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 27(3), pages 517-551, September.
- Douglas Dow, 2006. "Adaptation and performance in foreign markets: evidence of systematic under-adaptation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 37(2), pages 212-226, March.
- Chih-Hai Yang & Jong-Rong Chen & Wen-Bin Chuang, 2004. "Technology and Export Decision," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 22(5), pages 349-364, 06.
- Janice E. Carrillo & Cheryl Gaimon, 2004. "Managing Knowledge-Based Resource Capabilities Under Uncertainty," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 50(11), pages 1504-1518, November.
- Gupta, Shreekant & Goldar, Bishwanath, 2005. "Do stock markets penalize environment-unfriendly behaviour? Evidence from India," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 81-95, January.
- José Manuel Campa, 1994. "Multinational Investment under Uncertainty in the Chemical Processing Industries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(3), pages 557-578, September.
- Glen Dowell & Stuart Hart & Bernard Yeung, 2000. "Do Corporate Global Environmental Standards Create or Destroy Market Value?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(8), pages 1059-1074, August.
- Kent D Miller, 1993. "Industry and Country Effects on Managers′ Perceptions of Environmental Uncertainties," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 24(4), pages 693-714, December.
- Paul Westhead & Mike Wright & Deniz Ucbasaran, 2004. "Internationalization of private firms: environmental turbulence and organizational strategies and resources," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(6), pages 501-522, November.
- Narula,Rajneesh, 2001. "R&D Collaboration by SMEs: new opportunities and limitations in the face of globalisation," Research Memorandum 011, Maastricht University, Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
- Burpitt, William J. & Rondinelli, Dennis A., 1998. "Export decision-making in small firms: the role of organizational learning," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 51-68.
- Graham, David & Woods, Ngaire, 2006. "Making corporate self-regulation effective in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 868-883, May.
- Gerbens-Leenes, P. W. & Moll, H. C. & Schoot Uiterkamp, A. J. M., 2003. "Design and development of a measuring method for environmental sustainability in food production systems," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 231-248, September.
- Beise, Marian & Rennings, Klaus, 2005. "Lead markets and regulation: a framework for analyzing the international diffusion of environmental innovations," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 5-17, January.
- Emilio Galdeano-Gómez & José Céspedes-Lorente & Manuel Rodríguez-Rodríguez, 2006. "Productivity and Environmental Performance in Marketing Cooperatives: An Analysis of the Spanish Horticultural Sector," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 479-500.
- Michael E. Porter & Claas van der Linde, 1995. "Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 97-118, Fall.
- David Hitchens & Samarthia Thankappan & Mary Trainor & Jens Clausen & Bruna De Marchi, 2005. "Environmental Performance, Competitiveness And Management Of Small Businesses In Europe," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 96(5), pages 541-557, December.
- Miller, K.D., 1993. "Industry and Country Effects on Manager's Perceptions of Environmental Uncertainties," Papers 93-105, Purdue University, Krannert School of Management - Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER).
- Ernst Verwaal & Bas Donkers, 2002. "Firm Size and Export Intensity: Solving an Empirical Puzzle," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 33(3), pages 603-613, September.
- Stan D Reid, 1981. "The Decision-Maker and Export Entry and Expansion," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 12(2), pages 101-112, June.
- Witkowski, Terrence H. & Thibodeau, Eric J., 1999. "Personal Bonding Processes in International Marketing Relationships," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 315-325, November.
- Céspedes-Lorente, José & Burgos-Jiménez, Jerónimo de & Álvarez-Gil, Maria José, 2003. "Stakeholders' environmental influence. An empirical analysis in the Spanish hotel industry," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 333-358, September.
- Yadong Luo, 2004. "Building a Strong Foothold in an Emerging Market: A Link Between Resource Commitment and Environment Conditions," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(5), pages 749-773, 07.
- Wakelin, Katharine, 1998. "Innovation and export behaviour at the firm level," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(7-8), pages 829-841, April.