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Gender differences in time allocation contribute to differences in developmental outcomes in children and adolescents

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  • Nguyen, Ha Trong
  • Brinkman, Sally
  • Le, Huong Thu
  • Zubrick, Stephen R.
  • Mitrou, Francis

Abstract

Using over 50 thousand time-use diaries from two cohorts of children, we document significant gender differences in time allocation in the first 16 years in life. Relative to males, females spend more time on personal care, chores and educational activities and less time on physical and media related activities. These gender gaps in time allocation appear at very young ages and widen overtime. We provide novel evidence that gender differentials in time investment are quantitatively important in explaining a female advantage in most cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Moreover, gender disparity in educational time outside of school is the most important factor contributing to gender test score gaps and its contribution is more pronounced for higher performing students. By contrast, gender differences in media time are the main factor explaining gender gaps in non-cognitive skills. As children age, gender differences in time allocation play an increasing role in explaining gender gaps in both cognitive and non-cognitive skills.

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  • Nguyen, Ha Trong & Brinkman, Sally & Le, Huong Thu & Zubrick, Stephen R. & Mitrou, Francis, 2022. "Gender differences in time allocation contribute to differences in developmental outcomes in children and adolescents," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 89(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecoedu:v:89:y:2022:i:c:s0272775722000462
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2022.102270
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    Cited by:

    1. Nguyen, Ha Trong & Christian, Hayley & Le, Huong Thu & Connelly, Luke & Zubrick, Stephen R. & Mitrou, Francis, 2021. "The impact of weather on time allocation to physical activity and sleep of child-parent dyads," GLO Discussion Paper Series 886, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    2. Nguyen, Ha Trong & Christian, Hayley & Le, Huong Thu & Connelly, Luke & Zubrick, Stephen R. & Mitrou, Francis, 2022. "Causal impact of physical activity on child health and development," GLO Discussion Paper Series 1081, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    3. Nguyen, Ha Trong & Zubrick, Stephen R. & Mitrou, Francis, 2024. "The effects of sleep duration on child health and development," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 221(C), pages 35-51.
    4. Nicole Black & Danusha Jayawardana & Gawain Heckley, 2023. "Children’s Time Allocation and the Socioeconomic Gap in Human Capital," Papers 2023-06, Centre for Health Economics, Monash University.
    5. Marlon R. Tracey & Chanita C. Holmes & Marvin G. Powell, 2024. "Parental limit-setting decisions and adolescent subject grades," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 143-171, March.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Time allocation; Time use diary; Gender gap; Human capital; Child development;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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