IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Reducing poverty in sub-Saharan Africa through investments in water and other priorities

  • Hanjra, Munir A.
  • Ferede, Tadele
  • Gutta, Debel Gemechu

Water resources are essential to human development processes and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals that seek, inter alia, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal literacy, and ensure environmental sustainability. Expanding irrigation is essential to increase agricultural production, which is needed to achieve economic development and attain food security in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Water resources and irrigated agriculture are not developed to their full potential. Currently less than 4% of renewable water resources in Africa are withdrawn for agriculture. Barriers include the lack of financial and human resources to build irrigation and related rural infrastructure and acquire agricultural technology, and inadequate access to markets. This constrains progress towards poverty reduction. We examine the linkages between agricultural water, education, markets and rural poverty through a review of published studies. We argue that, linking agricultural water, education, and market interventions, which are so often implemented separately, would generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programs. Investments in agricultural water management and complementary rural infrastructure and related policies are the pathways to break the poverty trap in smallholder African agriculture.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T3X-4W0SS8H-1/2/4de58a6b5511a6886014805f71203b86
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Agricultural Water Management.

Volume (Year): 96 (2009)
Issue (Month): 7 (July)
Pages: 1062-1070

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:96:y:2009:i:7:p:1062-1070
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Connor, David & Comas, Jordi & Macpherson, Helena-Gomez & Mateos, Luciano, 2008. "Impact of small-holder irrigation on the agricultural production, food supply and economic prosperity of a representative village beside the Senegal River, Mauritania," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 96(1-3), pages 1-15, March.
  2. Jayne, T. S. & Govereh, J. & Wanzala, M. & Demeke, M., 2003. "Fertilizer market development: a comparative analysis of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Zambia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 293-316, August.
  3. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 2001. "Does piped water reduce diarrhea for children in rural India ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2664, The World Bank.
  4. Bellon, Mauricio R. & Hodson, David & Bergvinson, David & Beck, David & Martinez-Romero, Eduardo & Montoya, Yinha, 2005. "Targeting agricultural research to benefit poor farmers: Relating poverty mapping to maize environments in Mexico," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(5-6), pages 476-492.
  5. Psacharopoulos, George, 1993. "Returns to investment in education : a global update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1067, The World Bank.
  6. Wassie Berhanu & David Colman & Bichaka Fayissa, 2008. "Diversification and Livelihood Sustainability in a Semi-Arid Environment: A Case Study from Southern Ethiopia," Working Papers 200806, Middle Tennessee State University, Department of Economics and Finance.
  7. Eastwood, Robert & Lipton, Michael, 1997. "The impact of changes in human fertility on poverty," Discussion Papers in Economics 01/97, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
  8. Takashi Kurosaki, 2006. "Consumption vulnerability to risk in rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(1), pages 70-89.
  9. C. Berti Ceroni, 1998. "Poverty Traps and Human Capital Accumulation," Working Papers 315, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  10. Zeller, Manfred & Diagne, Aliou & Mataya, Charles, 1998. "Market access by smallholder farmers in Malawi: implications for technology adoption, agricultural productivity and crop income," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 19(1-2), September.
  11. Amarasinghe, Upali & Samad, Madar & Anputhas, Markandu, 2005. "Spatial clustering of rural poverty and food insecurity in Sri Lanka," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(5-6), pages 493-509.
  12. Hussain, Intizar & Hanjra, Munir, . "Irrigation and poverty alleviation: review of the empirical evidence," Papers published in Journals (Open Access) h034483, International Water Management Institute.
  13. Pender, John & Ssewanyana, Sarah & Edward, Kato & Nkonya, Ephraim M., 2004. "Linkages between poverty and land management in rural Uganda: evidence from the Uganda National Household Survey, 1999/00," EPTD discussion papers 122, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  14. Binswanger, Hans P & von Braun, Joachim, 1991. "Technological Change and Commercialization in Agriculture: The Effect on the Poor," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 6(1), pages 57-80, January.
  15. Michael Johnson & Peter Hazell & Ashok Gulati, 2003. "The Role of Intermediate Factor Markets in Asia's Green Revolution: Lessons for Africa?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1211-1216.
  16. Shah, T. & Alam, M. & Kumar, M. D. & Nagar, R. K. & Singh, M., 2000. "Pedaling out of poverty: social impact of a manual irrigation technology in South Asia," IWMI Books, Reports H027051, International Water Management Institute.
  17. Keijiro OTSUKA & Kaliappa P. KALIRAJAN, 2006. "Rice Green Revolution In Asia And Its Transferability To Africa: An Introduction," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 44(2), pages 107-122.
  18. Zeller, Manfred & Diagne, Aliou & Mataya, Charles, 1998. "Market access by smallholder farmers in Malawi: implications for technology adoption, agricultural productivity and crop income," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 19(1-2), pages 219-229, September.
  19. Stefan Dercon, 2003. "Growth and Shocks: evidence from rural Ethiopia," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2003-12, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  20. Bereket Kebede, 2002. "Land Tenure and Common Pool Resources in Rural Ethiopia: A Study Based on Fifteen Sites," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 14(1), pages 113-149.
  21. Gaurav Datt & Martin Ravallion, 1998. "Farm productivity and rural poverty in India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(4), pages 62-85.
  22. von Braun, Joachim & Puetz, Detlev & Webb, Patrick, 1989. "Irrigation technology and commercialization of rice in the Gambia: effects on income and nutrition," Research reports 75, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  23. Elan Satriawan & Scott M. Swinton, 2007. "Does human capital raise farm or nonfarm earning more? New insight from a rural Pakistan household panel," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 36(3), pages 421-428, 05.
  24. Alberto Chong & César Calderón, 2001. "Volume and Quality of Infrastructure and the Distribution of Income: An Empirical Investigation," Research Department Publications 4263, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  25. Yamauchi, Futoshi, 2007. "Social learning, neighborhood effects, and investment in human capital: Evidence from Green-Revolution India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 37-62, May.
  26. Paul Mosley, 2002. "The African green revolution as a pro-poor policy instrument," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(6), pages 695-724.
  27. Neil McCulloch & Bob Baulch, 2000. "Simulating the Impact of Policy upon Chronic and Transitory Poverty in Rural Pakistan," Econometrics 0004003, EconWPA.
  28. Sourafel Girma & Abbi Kedir, 2005. "Heterogeneity in returns to schooling: Econometric evidence from Ethiopia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(8), pages 1405-1416.
  29. Thirtle, Colin G. & Lin, Lin & Piesse, Jenifer, 2003. "The Impact Of Research Led Agricultural Productivity Growth On Poverty Reduction In Africa, Asia And Latin America," 2003 Annual Meeting, August 16-22, 2003, Durban, South Africa 25834, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  30. Sharada Weir & John Knight, 2007. "Production Externalities of Education: Evidence from Rural Ethiopia," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 16(1), pages 134-165, January.
  31. Heidecke, Claudia, 2006. "Development and evaluation of a regional water poverty index for Benin:," EPTD discussion papers 145, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  32. Neil McCulloch & Bob Baulch, 2000. "Simulating the impact of policy upon chronic and transitory poverty in rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 100-130.
  33. Delgado, Christopher L. & Hopkins, Jane & Kelly , Valerie & Hazell, P. B. R. & McKenna, Anna A. & Gruhn, Peter & Hojjati, Behjat & Sil, Jayashree & Courbois, Claude, 1998. "Agricultural growth linkages in Sub-Saharan Africa:," Research reports 107, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  34. Christiaensen, Luc & Alderman, Harold, 2004. "Child Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Can Maternal Knowledge Augment the Role of Income?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(2), pages 287-312, January.
  35. Canning, David & Bennathan, Esra, 2000. "The social rate of return on infrastructure investments," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2390, The World Bank.
  36. Antle, John M, 1983. "Infrastructure and Aggregate Agricultural Productivity: International Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(3), pages 609-19, April.
  37. Palmer-Jones, Richard, 2003. "Agricultural growth, poverty reduction and agro-ecological zones in India: an ecological fallacy?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(5-6), pages 423-431.
  38. Munshi, Kaivan, 2004. "Social learning in a heterogeneous population: technology diffusion in the Indian Green Revolution," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 185-213, February.
  39. Jonna P. Estudillo & Yasuyuki Sawada & Mahabub Hossain, 2005. "Socioeconomic Changes and the Decline in Poverty: A View from Three Villages in the Philippines, 1985-1997 ," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 19(4), pages 383-406, December.
  40. Marrit Van Den Berg & Ruerd Ruben, 2006. "Small-Scale irrigation and income distribution in Ethiopia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(5), pages 868-880.
  41. Kraay, Aart, 2006. "When is growth pro-poor? Evidence from a panel of countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 198-227, June.
  42. G Johnes, 2006. "Education and economic growth," Working Papers 577341, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
  43. Huang, Qiuqiong & Rozelle, Scott & Huang, Jikun & Wang, Jinxia, 2002. "Irrigation, Agricultural Performance And Poverty Reduction In China," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19605, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  44. Von Braun, Joachim, 1988. "Effects of technological change in agriculture on food consumption and nutrition: Rice in a West African setting," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(9), pages 1083-1098, September.
  45. Tushaar Shah & Alam, M & Kumar, M. Dinesh. & Nagar, R. K. & Singh, Mahendra, 2000. "Pedaling out of poverty: Social impact of a manual irrigation technology in South Asia," IWMI Research Reports H 27051, International Water Management Institute.
  46. Chen, Shaohua & Ravallion, Martin, 2007. "Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981-2004," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4211, The World Bank.
  47. Kirit S. Parikh, 1992. "4% Growth Rate in Agriculture over the 1990's: Policy Implications and Environmental Consequences," Indian Economic Review, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 27, pages 165-185.
  48. Kwabena Gyimah-Brempong & Oliver Paddison & Workie Mitiku, 2006. "Higher education and economic growth in Africa," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(3), pages 509-529.
  49. Gershon Feder & Rinku Murgai & Jaime B. Quizon, 2004. "The Acquisition and Diffusion of Knowledge: The Case of Pest Management Training in Farmer Field Schools, Indonesia," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(2), pages 221-243.
  50. Foster, Andrew D. & Rosenzweig, Mark R., 2004. "Technological change and the distribution of schooling: evidence from green-revolution India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 87-111, June.
  51. Showers, Kate B., 2002. "Water Scarcity and Urban Africa: An Overview of Urban-Rural Water Linkages," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 621-648, April.
  52. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
  53. Asfaw, Abay & Admassie, Assefa, 2004. "The role of education on the adoption of chemical fertiliser under different socioeconomic environments in Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 30(3), pages 215-228, May.
  54. Reardon, Thomas & Taylor, J. Edward, 1996. "Agroclimatic shock, income inequality, and poverty: Evidence from Burkina Faso," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 901-914, May.
  55. Bennell, Paul, 1996. "Rates of return to education: Does the conventional pattern prevail in sub-Saharan Africa?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 183-199, January.
  56. Dercon, Stefan & Hoddinott, John, 2005. "Livelihoods, growth, and links to market towns in 15 Ethiopian villages," FCND discussion papers 194, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  57. Takeshi SAKURAI, 2006. "Intensification Of Rainfed Lowland Rice Production In West Africa: Present Status And Potential Green Revolution," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 44(2), pages 232-251.
  58. Fedderke, J.W. & Perkins, P. & Luiz, J.M., 2006. "Infrastructural investment in long-run economic growth: South Africa 1875-2001," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1037-1059, June.
  59. Knowler, Duncan & Bradshaw, Ben, 2007. "Farmers' adoption of conservation agriculture: A review and synthesis of recent research," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 25-48, February.
  60. Barrett, C. B. & Reardon, T. & Webb, P., 2001. "Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 315-331, August.
  61. Inocencio, Arlene & Kikuchi, Masao & Tonosaki, Manabu & Maruyama, Atsushi & Merrey, Douglas & Sally, Hilmy & de Jong, Ijsbrand, 2007. "Costs and performance of irrigation projects: A comparison of Sub-Saharan Africa and other developing regions," IWMI Research Reports H036214, International Water Management Institute.
  62. Behrman, Jere R. & Ross, David & Sabot, Richard, 2008. "Improving quality versus increasing the quantity of schooling: Estimates of rates of return from rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 94-104, February.
  63. Azhar, Rauf A, 1991. "Education and Technical Efficiency during the Green Revolution in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(3), pages 651-65, April.
  64. Binswanger, Hans & Yang, Maw-Cheng & Bowers, Alan & Mundlak, Yair, 1987. "On the determinants of cross-country aggregate agricultural supply," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 111-131.
  65. Anirudh Krishna & Daniel Lumonya & Milissa Markiewicz & Firminus Mugumya & Agatha Kafuko & Jonah Wegoye, 2006. "Escaping poverty and becoming poor in 36 villages of Central and Western Uganda," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(2), pages 346-370.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:96:y:2009:i:7:p:1062-1070. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.