IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/agiwat/v96y2009i11p1596-1604.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Pathways to breaking the poverty trap in Ethiopia: Investments in agricultural water, education, and markets

Author

Listed:
  • Hanjra, Munir A.
  • Ferede, Tadele
  • Gutta, Debel Gemechu

Abstract

Investments in agricultural water management should complement or strengthen the livelihood and coping systems of the rural poor, and should thus be instrumental for breaking the poverty trap in Ethiopia. Underdeveloped water resources constrain progress towards poverty reduction. We examine linkages and complementarities between agricultural water, education, markets and rural poverty through an empirical study using household level data from selected villages in southern Ethiopia. We show that investments in irrigation can contribute to poverty reduction, but the poverty reducing impacts of irrigation water are greater when human capital and rural markets are well developed. The size of landholding, access to irrigation water, on-farm land and water conservation practices, literacy of the household head, and years of education of adults are all significant determinants of household welfare, and thus potential pathways for reducing poverty. Expansion of cultivated land, particularly irrigated land, universal literacy, and an extra school year for adults all reduce poverty, but reductions in poverty are greater when irrigation is combined with universal literacy. These findings call for simultaneous investments in agricultural water, education, markets and related policy support measures for reducing poverty in smallholder agriculture in Ethiopia.

Suggested Citation

  • Hanjra, Munir A. & Ferede, Tadele & Gutta, Debel Gemechu, 2009. "Pathways to breaking the poverty trap in Ethiopia: Investments in agricultural water, education, and markets," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(11), pages 1596-1604, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:96:y:2009:i:11:p:1596-1604
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378-3774(09)00177-2
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gebremedhin, Berhanu & Swinton, Scott M., 2003. "Investment in soil conservation in northern Ethiopia: the role of land tenure security and public programs," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 69-84, July.
    2. Diao, Xinshen & Pratt, Alejandro Nin, 2007. "Growth options and poverty reduction in Ethiopia - An economy-wide model analysis," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 205-228, April.
    3. Hanjra, Munir A. & Ferede, Tadele & Gutta, Debel Gemechu, 2009. "Reducing poverty in sub-Saharan Africa through investments in water and other priorities," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(7), pages 1062-1070, July.
    4. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Wolpin, Kenneth I, 1993. "Credit Market Constraints, Consumption Smoothing, and the Accumulation of Durable Production Assets in Low-Income Countries: Investment in Bullocks in India," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 223-244, April.
    5. Asfaw, Abay & von Braun, Joachim, 2004. "Is Consumption Insured against Illness? Evidence on Vulnerability of Households to Health Shocks in Rural Ethiopia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(1), pages 115-129, October.
    6. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    7. de Fraiture, Charlotte & Wichelns, D. & Rockstrom, J. & Kemp-Benedict, E. & Eriyagama, Nishadi & Gordon, L. J. & Hanjra, M. A. & Hoogeveen, J. & Huber-Lee, A. & Karlberg, L., 2007. "Looking ahead to 2050: scenarios of alternative investment approaches," IWMI Books, Reports H040196, International Water Management Institute.
    8. Wassie Berhanu & David Colman & Bichaka Fayissa, 2007. "Diversification and livelihood sustainability in a semi-arid environment: A case study from southern Ethiopia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(5), pages 871-889.
    9. Bereket Kebede, 2006. "Land reform distribution of land & institutions in rural Ethiopia: analysis of inequality with dirty data," CSAE Working Paper Series 2006-05, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    10. Daniel Ayalew Ali & Stefan Dercon & Madhur Gautam, 2011. "Property rights in a very poor country: tenure insecurity and investment in Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 42(1), pages 75-86, January.
    11. Bereket Kebede, 2002. "Land Tenure and Common Pool Resources in Rural Ethiopia: A Study Based on Fifteen Sites," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 14(1), pages 113-149.
    12. Deininger, Klaus & Ali, Daniel Ayalew & Holden, Stein & Zevenbergen, Jaap, 2008. "Rural Land Certification in Ethiopia: Process, Initial Impact, and Implications for Other African Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 1786-1812, October.
    13. Jayne, T. S. & Yamano, Takashi & Weber, Michael T. & Tschirley, David & Benfica, Rui & Chapoto, Antony & Zulu, Ballard, 2003. "Smallholder income and land distribution in Africa: implications for poverty reduction strategies," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 253-275, June.
    14. Gaurav Datt & Martin Ravallion, 1998. "Farm productivity and rural poverty in India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(4), pages 62-85.
    15. Frank Ellis, 1998. "Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 1-38.
    16. Molden, David & Oweis, T. Y. & Pasquale, S. & Kijne, J. W. & Hanjra, M. A. & Bindraban, P. S. & Bouman, B. A. M. & Cook, S. & Erenstein, O. & Farahani, H. & Hachum, A. & Hoogeveen, J. & Mahoo, H. & Na, 2007. "Pathways for increasing agricultural water productivity," IWMI Books, Reports H040200, International Water Management Institute.
    17. Gregory Amacher & Jeffrey Alwang, 2004. "Productivity and Land Enhancing Technologies in Northern Ethiopia: Health, Public Investments, and Sequential Adoption," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(2), pages 321-331.
    18. Simeon Ehui & John Pender, 2005. "Resource degradation, low agricultural productivity, and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: pathways out of the spiral," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 32(s1), pages 225-242, January.
    19. Ravallion, Martin, 2009. "Are There Lessons for Africa from China's Success Against Poverty?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 303-313, February.
    20. Lanjouw, Peter & Quizon, Jaime & Sparrow, Robert, 2001. "Non-agricultural earnings in peri-urban areas of Tanzania: evidence from household survey data," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 385-403, August.
    21. Jayne, T. S. & Govereh, J. & Wanzala, M. & Demeke, M., 2003. "Fertilizer market development: a comparative analysis of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Zambia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 293-316, August.
    22. Neil McCulloch & Bob Baulch, 2000. "Simulating the impact of policy upon chronic and transitory poverty in rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 100-130.
    23. Crawford, Eric & Kelly, Valerie & Jayne, T. S. & Howard, Julie, 2003. "Input use and market development in Sub-Saharan Africa: an overview," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 277-292, August.
    24. Fitsum Hagos & Stein Holden, 2006. "Tenure security, resource poverty, public programs, and household plot-level conservation investments in the highlands of northern Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 34(2), pages 183-196, March.
    25. Holden, Stein & Shiferaw, Bekele & Pender, John, 2004. "Non-farm income, household welfare, and sustainable land management in a less-favoured area in the Ethiopian highlands," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 369-392, August.
    26. Thomas Reardon & J. Edward Taylor & Kostas Stamoulis & Peter Lanjouw & Arsenio Balisacan, 2000. "Effects of Non-Farm Employment on Rural Income Inequality in Developing Countries: An Investment Perspective," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 266-288.
    27. Kochar, Anjini, 1995. "Explaining Household Vulnerability to Idiosyncratic Income Shocks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 159-164, May.
    28. Gibson, John & Rozelle, Scott, 2003. "Poverty and Access to Roads in Papua New Guinea," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(1), pages 159-185, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Urquía-Grande, Elena & Rubio-Alcocer, Antonio, 2015. "Agricultural infrastructure donation performance: Empirical evidence in rural Ethiopia," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 245-254.
    2. Mapedza, Everisto & Wichelns, Dennis, 2010. "Evaluating baseline indicators pertaining to Oxfam America's Water Program in Ethiopia: a revised report prepared for Oxfam America," IWMI Research Reports H043433, International Water Management Institute.
    3. Boere, Esther & Mosnier, Aline & Bocqueho, Geraldine & Krisztin, Tamas & Havlik, Petr, 2016. "Developing country-wide farm typologies: An analysis of Ethiopian smallholders’ income and food security," 2016 AAAE Fifth International Conference, September 23-26, 2016, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 246924, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    4. Dell’Angelo, Jampel & D’Odorico, Paolo & Rulli, Maria Cristina & Marchand, Philippe, 2017. "The Tragedy of the Grabbed Commons: Coercion and Dispossession in the Global Land Rush," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 1-12.
    5. Manab Das & Debashish Goswami & Anshuman & Alok Adholeya, 2014. "Land degradation, water scarcity and sustainability," Chapters,in: Handbook on Food, chapter 17, pages 443-461 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Pramod Pandey & Pieter Zaag & Michelle Soupir & Vijay Singh, 2013. "A New Model for Simulating Supplemental Irrigation and the Hydro-Economic Potential of a Rainwater Harvesting System in Humid Subtropical Climates," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 27(8), pages 3145-3164, June.
    7. repec:eee:agiwat:v:194:y:2017:i:c:p:68-77 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Abro, Zewdu Ayalew & Alemu, Bamlaku Alamirew & Hanjra, Munir A., 2014. "Policies for Agricultural Productivity Growth and Poverty Reduction in Rural Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 461-474.
    9. Cuong Le Van & Çağrı Sağlam & Agah Turan, 2016. "Optimal Growth Strategy under Dynamic Threshold," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 18(6), pages 979-991, December.
    10. repec:eee:agiwat:v:191:y:2017:i:c:p:207-217 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Ejaz Qureshi, M. & Hanjra, Munir A. & Ward, John, 2013. "Impact of water scarcity in Australia on global food security in an era of climate change," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 136-145.
    12. McCartney, Matthew & Smakhtin, Vladimir, 2010. "Water storage in an era of climate change: addressing the challenge of increasing rainfall variability. Blue paper," IWMI Reports 212430, International Water Management Institute.
    13. Hanjra, Munir A. & Qureshi, M. Ejaz, 2010. "Global water crisis and future food security in an era of climate change," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 365-377, October.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:96:y:2009:i:11:p:1596-1604. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.