IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/agiwat/v97y2010i10p1617-1627.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

A global benchmark map of water productivity for rainfed and irrigated wheat

Author

Listed:
  • Zwart, Sander J.
  • Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M.
  • de Fraiture, Charlotte
  • Molden, David J.

Abstract

The growing pressure on fresh water resources demands that agriculture becomes more productive with its current water use. Increasing water productivity is an often cited solution, though the current levels of water productivity are not systematically mapped. A global map of water productivity helps to identify where water resources are productively used, and identifies places where improvements are possible. The WATPRO water productivity model for wheat, using remote sensing data products as input, was applied at a global scale with global data sets of the NDVI and surface albedo to benchmark water productivity of wheat for the beginning of this millennium. Time profiles of the NDVI were used to determine the time frame from crop establishment to harvest on a pixel basis, which was considered the modelling period. It was found that water productivity varies from approximately 0.2 to 1.8 kg of harvestable wheat per cubic metre of water consumed. From the 10 largest producers of wheat, France and Germany score the highest country average water productivity of 1.42 and 1.35 kg m-3, respectively. The results were compared with modelling information by Liu et al. (2007) who applied the GEPIC model at a global scale to map water productivity, and by Chapagain and Hoekstra (2004) who used FAO statistics to determine water productivity per country. A comparison with Liu et al. showed a good correlation for most countries, but the correlation with the results by Chapagain and Hoekstra was less obvious. The global patterns of the water productivity map were compared with global data sets of precipitation and reference evapotranspiration to determine the impact of climate and of water availability reflected by precipitation. It appears that the highest levels of water productivity are to be expected in temperate climates with high precipitation. Due to its non-linear relationship with precipitation, it is expected that large gains in water productivity can be made with in situ rain water harvesting or supplemental irrigation in dry areas with low seasonal precipitation. A full understanding of the spatial patterns by country or river basin will support decisions on where to invest and what measures to take to make agriculture more water productive.

Suggested Citation

  • Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M. & de Fraiture, Charlotte & Molden, David J., 2010. "A global benchmark map of water productivity for rainfed and irrigated wheat," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(10), pages 1617-1627, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:97:y:2010:i:10:p:1617-1627
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378-3774(10)00186-1
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Geerts, Sam & Raes, Dirk, 2009. "Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(9), pages 1275-1284, September.
    2. Ali, M.H. & Hoque, M.R. & Hassan, A.A. & Khair, A., 2007. "Effects of deficit irrigation on yield, water productivity, and economic returns of wheat," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 92(3), pages 151-161, September.
    3. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M., 2007. "SEBAL for detecting spatial variation of water productivity and scope for improvement in eight irrigated wheat systems," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 287-296, May.
    4. Metin Sezen, S. & Yazar, Attila, 2006. "Wheat yield response to line-source sprinkler irrigation in the arid Southeast Anatolia region of Turkey," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 81(1-2), pages 59-76, March.
    5. Molden, David & Oweis, Theib & Steduto, Pasquale & Bindraban, Prem & Hanjra, Munir A. & Kijne, Jacob, 2010. "Improving agricultural water productivity: Between optimism and caution," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(4), pages 528-535, April.
    6. Molden, David & Oweis, T. Y. & Pasquale, S. & Kijne, Jacob W. & Hanjra, M. A. & Bindraban, P. S. & Bouman, Bas A. M. & Cook, S. & Erenstein, O. & Farahani, H. & Hachum, A. & Hoogeveen, J. & Mahoo, Hen, 2007. "Pathways for increasing agricultural water productivity," Book Chapters,, International Water Management Institute.
    7. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M., 2004. "Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 115-133, September.
    8. Huang, Yilong & Chen, Liding & Fu, Bojie & Huang, Zhilin & Gong, Jie, 2005. "The wheat yields and water-use efficiency in the Loess Plateau: straw mulch and irrigation effects," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 209-222, April.
    9. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M. & de Fraiture, Charlotte & Molden, David J., 2010. "WATPRO: A remote sensing based model for mapping water productivity of wheat," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(10), pages 1628-1636, October.
    10. Corbeels, M. & Hofman, G. & Van Cleemput, O., 1998. "Analysis of water use by wheat grown on a cracking clay soil in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment: weather and nitrogen effects," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 147-167, December.
    11. Liu, Junguo & Williams, Jimmy R. & Zehnder, Alexander J.B. & Yang, Hong, 2007. "GEPIC - modelling wheat yield and crop water productivity with high resolution on a global scale," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 478-493, May.
    12. Nangia, V. & de Fraiture, C. & Turral, H., 2008. "Water quality implications of raising crop water productivity," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 825-835, July.
    13. Zhang, Buchong & Li, Feng-Min & Huang, Gaobao & Cheng, Zi-Yong & Zhang, Yanhong, 2006. "Yield performance of spring wheat improved by regulated deficit irrigation in an arid area," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 28-42, January.
    14. Rahman, S. M. & Khalil, M. I. & Ahmed, M. F., 1995. "Yield-water relations and nitrogen utilization by wheat in salt-affected soils of Bangladesh," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 49-56, August.
    15. Immerzeel, W.W. & Gaur, A. & Zwart, S.J., 2008. "Integrating remote sensing and a process-based hydrological model to evaluate water use and productivity in a south Indian catchment," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 11-24, January.
    16. Wang, Huixiao & Zhang, Lu & Dawes, W. R. & Liu, Changming, 2001. "Improving water use efficiency of irrigated crops in the North China Plain -- measurements and modelling," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 151-167, June.
    17. Singh, R. & van Dam, J.C. & Feddes, R.A., 2006. "Water productivity analysis of irrigated crops in Sirsa district, India," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 253-278, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Scheierling, Susanne M. & Treguer, David O. & Booker, James F., 2015. "Water Productivity in Agriculture: Looking for Water in the Agricultural Productivity and Efficiency Literature," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205677, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    2. Li, Xiaolin & Tong, Ling & Niu, Jun & Kang, Shaozhong & Du, Taisheng & Li, Sien & Ding, Risheng, 2017. "Spatio-temporal distribution of irrigation water productivity and its driving factors for cereal crops in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 55-63.
    3. Mekonnen, Mesfin M. & Hoekstra, Arjen Y. & Neale, Christopher M.U. & Ray, Chittaranjan & Yang, Haishun S., 2020. "Water productivity benchmarks: The case of maize and soybean in Nebraska," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 234(C).
    4. Saadi, Sameh & Todorovic, Mladen & Tanasijevic, Lazar & Pereira, Luis S. & Pizzigalli, Claudia & Lionello, Piero, 2015. "Climate change and Mediterranean agriculture: Impacts on winter wheat and tomato crop evapotranspiration, irrigation requirements and yield," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 103-115.
    5. Bannayan, M. & Eyshi Rezaei, E. & Hoogenboom, G., 2013. "Determining optimum planting dates for rainfed wheat using the precipitation uncertainty model and adjusted crop evapotranspiration," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 56-63.
    6. Meena, Raj Pal & Karnam, Venkatesh & R, Sendhil & Rinki, & Sharma, R.K. & Tripathi, S.C. & Singh, Gyanendra Pratap, 2019. "Identification of water use efficient wheat genotypes with high yield for regions of depleting water resources in India," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 223(C), pages 1-1.
    7. Feng Huang & Zhong Liu & Bradley Ridoutt & Jing Huang & Baoguo Li, 2015. "China’s water for food under growing water scarcity," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 7(5), pages 933-949, October.
    8. Li, Xuechun & Chen, Dan & Cao, Xinchun & Luo, Zhaohui & Webber, Michael, 2020. "Assessing the components of, and factors influencing, paddy rice water footprint in China," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 229(C).
    9. Meena, Raj Pal & Karnam, Venkatesh & Tripathi, S.C. & Jha, Ankita & Sharma, R.K. & Singh, G.P., 2019. "Irrigation management strategies in wheat for efficient water use in the regions of depleting water resources," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 214(C), pages 38-46.
    10. Zheng, Huifang & Shao, Ruixin & Xue, Yanfang & Ying, Hao & Yin, Yulong & Cui, Zhenling & Yang, QingHua, 2020. "Water productivity of irrigated maize production systems in Northern China: A meta-analysis," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 234(C).
    11. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M. & de Fraiture, Charlotte & Molden, David J., 2010. "WATPRO: A remote sensing based model for mapping water productivity of wheat," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(10), pages 1628-1636, October.
    12. Zhou, Qing & Zhang, Yali & Wu, Feng, 2021. "Evaluation of the most proper management scale on water use efficiency and water productivity: A case study of the Heihe River Basin, China," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 246(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M. & de Fraiture, Charlotte & Molden, David J., 2010. "WATPRO: A remote sensing based model for mapping water productivity of wheat," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(10), pages 1628-1636, October.
    2. Li, Xiaolin & Tong, Ling & Niu, Jun & Kang, Shaozhong & Du, Taisheng & Li, Sien & Ding, Risheng, 2017. "Spatio-temporal distribution of irrigation water productivity and its driving factors for cereal crops in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 55-63.
    3. Huang, Feng & Li, Baoguo, 2010. "Assessing grain crop water productivity of China using a hydro-model-coupled-statistics approach. Part II: Application in breadbasket basins of China," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(9), pages 1259-1268, September.
    4. Scheierling, Susanne M. & Treguer, David O. & Booker, James F., 2015. "Water Productivity in Agriculture: Looking for Water in the Agricultural Productivity and Efficiency Literature," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205677, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    5. Ren, Dongyang & Xu, Xu & Engel, Bernard & Huang, Quanzhong & Xiong, Yunwu & Huo, Zailin & Huang, Guanhua, 2021. "A comprehensive analysis of water productivity in natural vegetation and various crops coexistent agro-ecosystems," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 243(C).
    6. Geerts, Sam & Raes, Dirk, 2009. "Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(9), pages 1275-1284, September.
    7. Tari, Ali Fuat, 2016. "The effects of different deficit irrigation strategies on yield, quality, and water-use efficiencies of wheat under semi-arid conditions," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 1-10.
    8. Huang, Feng & Li, Baoguo, 2010. "Assessing grain crop water productivity of China using a hydro-model-coupled-statistics approach: Part I: Method development and validation," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(7), pages 1077-1092, July.
    9. Yu, Liuyang & Zhao, Xining & Gao, Xiaodong & Siddique, Kadambot H.M., 2020. "Improving/maintaining water-use efficiency and yield of wheat by deficit irrigation: A global meta-analysis," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 228(C).
    10. Mainuddin, Mohammed & Maniruzzaman, Md. & Alam, Md. Mahbubul & Mojid, Mohammad A. & Schmidt, Erik J. & Islam, Md. Towfiqul & Scobie, Michael, 2020. "Water usage and productivity of Boro rice at the field level and their impacts on the sustainable groundwater irrigation in the North-West Bangladesh," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 240(C).
    11. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M., 2004. "Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 115-133, September.
    12. Fan, Yubing & Wang, Chenggang & Nan, Zhibiao, 2016. "Determining water use efficiency for wheat and cotton: A meta-regression analysis," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, Boston, Massachusetts 236059, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    13. Mustafa, S.M.T. & Vanuytrecht, E. & Huysmans, M., 2017. "Combined deficit irrigation and soil fertility management on different soil textures to improve wheat yield in drought-prone Bangladesh," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 191(C), pages 124-137.
    14. Mirshadiev, Mirzokhid & Fleskens, Luuk & van Dam, Jos & Pulatov, Alim, 2018. "Scoping of promising land management and water use practices in the dry areas of Uzbekistan," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 207(C), pages 15-25.
    15. Rathore, Vijay Singh & Nathawat, Narayan Singh & Bhardwaj, Seema & Sasidharan, Renjith Puthiyedathu & Yadav, Bhagirath Mal & Kumar, Mahesh & Santra, Priyabrata & Yadava, Narendra Dev & Yadav, Om Parka, 2017. "Yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies of sprinkler irrigated wheat grown under different irrigation and nitrogen levels in an arid region," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 187(C), pages 232-245.
    16. Sharma, Bharat & Molden, D. & Cook, Simon, 2015. "Water use efficiency in agriculture: measurement, current situation and trends," Book Chapters,, International Water Management Institute.
    17. Sharma, Bharat & Molden, D. & Cook, Simon, 2015. "Water use efficiency in agriculture: measurement, current situation and trends," IWMI Books, Reports H046807, International Water Management Institute.
    18. Tony Carr & Haishun Yang & Chittaranjan Ray, 2016. "Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 11(8), pages 1-17, August.
    19. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M., 2007. "SEBAL for detecting spatial variation of water productivity and scope for improvement in eight irrigated wheat systems," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 287-296, May.
    20. Muthuwatta, L.P. & Rientjes, T.H.M. & Bos, M.G., 2013. "Strategies to increase wheat production in the water scarce Karkheh River Basin, Iran," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 1-10.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:97:y:2010:i:10:p:1617-1627. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Nithya Sathishkumar (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.