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Four decades of rice water productivity in Bangladesh: A spatio-temporal analysis of district level panel data

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Abstract

The bulk of the water productivity (WP) literature has focused on static cross-sectional analysis with inadequate attention given to long-term, time series analysis, either at the country level or at a lower level of aggregation (e.g., district). The present study fills this gap by analyzing WP in Bangladesh using panel data of 21 districts over 37 years (1968–2004) divided into three phases. It estimated levels of, and trends in, WPs of one irrigated rice (rabi) crop, and two mainly rain-fed (kharif ) rice crops, with occasional supplementary irrigation. Also examined were WPs for rice crops in irrigated and rain-fed ecosystems. The findings indicated that WP levels in Bangladesh were significantly lower than that by global standards. Overall, WP growth rates varied significantly among districts and between phases with no consistent pattern emerging. On the whole, WPs trended upwards while differing widely among districts and between phases, seasons, ecosystems and areas differentiated by physiographic characteristics. The 1980s represented a period of stagnation. Drought-prone areas grew faster while salinity-prone areas grew slower vis-a-vis non-drought and non-saline areas. In the Ganges-dependent area, WP grew faster than that in the non-Ganges-dependent area. Rice production in Bangladesh represented a highly groundwater-dependent and fossil fuel-using process with significant environmental implications suggesting that WP growth may be unsustainable. Sustaining WP growth required a range of market and non-market-based policy options.

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  • Mohammad Alauddin & Upali A. Amarasinghe & Bharat R. Sharma, 2014. "Four decades of rice water productivity in Bangladesh: A spatio-temporal analysis of district level panel data," Discussion Papers Series 518, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
  • Handle: RePEc:qld:uq2004:518
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    1. Alauddin, Mohammad & Sharma, Bharat R., 2013. "Inter-district rice water productivity differences in Bangladesh: An empirical exploration and implications," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 210-218.
    2. Sanzidur Rahman & Ruhul Salim, 2013. "Six Decades of Total Factor Productivity Change and Sources of Growth in Bangladesh Agriculture (1948–2008)," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(2), pages 275-294, June.
    3. Alauddin, Mohammad & Quiggin, John, 2008. "Agricultural intensification, irrigation and the environment in South Asia: Issues and policy options," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 111-124, March.
    4. Amarasinghe, Upali A. & Shah, Tushaar & Singh, Om Prakash, 2007. "Changing consumption patterns: implications on food and water demand in India," IWMI Research Reports 44517, International Water Management Institute.
    5. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M., 2004. "Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 115-133, September.
    6. Derek Headey & Mohammad Alauddin & D.S. Prasada Rao, 2010. "Explaining agricultural productivity growth: an international perspective," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 41(1), pages 1-14, January.
    7. Jalota, S.K. & Singh, K.B. & Chahal, G.B.S. & Gupta, R.K. & Chakraborty, Somsubhra & Sood, Anil & Ray, S.S. & Panigrahy, S., 2009. "Integrated effect of transplanting date, cultivar and irrigation on yield, water saving and water productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Indian Punjab: Field and simulation study," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(7), pages 1096-1104, July.
    8. Cai, X.L. & Sharma, B.R., 2010. "Integrating remote sensing, census and weather data for an assessment of rice yield, water consumption and water productivity in the Indo-Gangetic river basin," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 309-316, February.
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