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Integrated effect of transplanting date, cultivar and irrigation on yield, water saving and water productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Indian Punjab: Field and simulation study

Author

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  • Jalota, S.K.
  • Singh, K.B.
  • Chahal, G.B.S.
  • Gupta, R.K.
  • Chakraborty, Somsubhra
  • Sood, Anil
  • Ray, S.S.
  • Panigrahy, S.

Abstract

Individual effect of different field scale management interventions for water saving in rice viz. changing date of transplanting, cultivar and irrigation schedule on yield, water saving and water productivity is well documented in the literature. However, little is known about their integrated effect. To study that, field experimentation and modeling approach was used. Field experiments were conducted for 2 years (2006 and 2007) at Punjab Agricultural University Farm, Ludhiana on a deep alluvial loamy sand Typic Ustipsamment soils developed under hyper-thermic regime. Treatments included three dates of transplanting (25 May, 10 June and 25 June), two cultivars (PR 118 inbred and RH 257 hybrid) and two irrigation schedules (2-days drainage period and at soil water suction of 16kPa). The model used was CropSyst, which has already been calibrated for growth (periodic biomass and LAI) of rice and soil water content in two independent experiments. The main findings of the field and simulation studies conducted are compared to any individual, integrated management of transplanting date, cultivar and irrigation, sustained yield (6.3-7.5tha-1) and saved substantial amount of water in rice. For example, with two management interventions, i.e. shifting of transplanting date to lower evaporative demand (from 5 May to 25 June) concomitant with growing of short duration hybrid variety (90 days from transplanting to harvest), the total real water saving (wet saving) through reduction in evapotranspiration (ET) was 140mm, which was almost double than managing the single, i.e. 66mm by shifting transplanting or 71mm by growing short duration hybrid variety. Shifting the transplanting date saved water through reduction in soil water evaporation component while growing of short duration variety through reduction in both evaporation and transpiration components of water balance. Managing irrigation water schedule based on soil water suction of 16kPa at 15-20cm soil depth, compared to 2-day drainage, did not save water in real (wet saving), however, it resulted into apparent water saving (dry saving). The real crop water productivity (marketable yield/ET) was more by 17% in 25th June transplanted rice than 25th May, 23% in short duration variety than long and 2% in irrigation treatment of 16kPa soil water suction than 2-days drainage. The corresponding values for the apparent crop water productivity (marketable yield/irrigation water applied) were 16, 20 and 50%, respectively. Pooled experimental data of 2 years showed that with managing irrigation scheduling based on soil water suction of 16kPa at 15-20cm soil depth, though 700mm irrigation water was saved but the associated yield was reduced by 277kgha-1.

Suggested Citation

  • Jalota, S.K. & Singh, K.B. & Chahal, G.B.S. & Gupta, R.K. & Chakraborty, Somsubhra & Sood, Anil & Ray, S.S. & Panigrahy, S., 2009. "Integrated effect of transplanting date, cultivar and irrigation on yield, water saving and water productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Indian Punjab: Field and simulation study," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(7), pages 1096-1104, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:96:y:2009:i:7:p:1096-1104
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    2. Brar, S.K. & Mahal, S.S. & Brar, A.S. & Vashist, K.K. & Sharma, Neerja & Buttar, G.S., 2012. "Transplanting time and seedling age affect water productivity, rice yield and quality in north-west India," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 217-222.
    3. Zhang, Biao & Fu, Zetian & Wang, Jieqiong & Zhang, Lingxian, 2019. "Farmers’ adoption of water-saving irrigation technology alleviates water scarcity in metropolis suburbs: A case study of Beijing, China," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 212(C), pages 349-357.
    4. Jalota, S.K. & Kaur, Harsimran & Kaur, Samanpreet & Vashisht, B.B., 2013. "Impact of climate change scenarios on yield, water and nitrogen-balance and -use efficiency of rice–wheat cropping system," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 29-38.
    5. Jalota, S.K. & Vashisht, B.B. & Kaur, Harsimran & Kaur, Samanpreet & Kaur, Prabhjyot, 2014. "Location specific climate change scenario and its impact on rice and wheat in Central Indian Punjab," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 131(C), pages 77-86.
    6. Jalota, S.K. & Jain, A.K. & Vashisht, B.B., 2018. "Minimize water deficit in wheat crop to ameliorate groundwater decline in rice-wheat cropping system," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 208(C), pages 261-267.
    7. Samanpreet Kaur & Rajan Aggarwal & S Jalota & Bharat Vashisht & Prit Lubana, 2014. "Estimation of Groundwater Balance Using Soil-Water-Vegetation Model and GIS," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 28(12), pages 4359-4371, September.
    8. Sandhu, S.S. & Mahal, S.S. & Vashist, K.K. & G.S.Buttar, & Brar, A.S. & Singh, Maninder, 2012. "Crop and water productivity of bed transplanted rice as influenced by various levels of nitrogen and irrigation in northwest India," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 32-39.

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